Although the reputation of Englands first queen regnant, Mary Tudor (died 1558)
had remained substantially unchanged in the intervening centuries, there were
always some defenders of that Catholic queen among the historians of Victorian
England. It is worth noting, however, that such revisionism made little if any
impact on the schoolroom history textbooks, where Marys reputation remained much
as John Foxe had defined it. Such anxiety as there was about attempts to restore
something of Marys reputation were made more problematic by the increasing
number and increasingly visible presence of a comprehensive Catholic hierarchy
in the nineteenth century, and by high-profile converts to the Catholic faith
and papal authority. The pre-eminent historians of the later Victorian era
consistently remained more favourable to the reign of Elizabeth, seen as the
destroyer,of an effective Catholic church in England.
The case of Ann Izzard is hardly a severe instance among post-Enlightenment witchcraft episodes. By the early nineteenth century, the symbiotic relationship between elite and non-elite sections of society where witchcraft is concerned has changed, and the differing views of magic, evil and causation held by the authorities and by those over whom they had dominion play out in significantly different ways. Among the villagers of Great Paxton, the assaults were considered neither violent outrages, revenge attacks nor irrational outbursts. The result of the hybridized situation, with institutional opinion totally transformed, but village-level perspectives largely unchanged, did not in the end spare Ann Izzard pain, humiliation and actual harm, although it very probably spared her life. Moreover, it is a case that highlights how profoundly ingrained traditional views remained among the populace as a whole, and how quickly such views could be turned into ostensive action.
This is a book-length study of cohabitation in nineteenth-century England, based on research into the lives of hundreds of couples. ‘Common-law’ marriages did not have any legal basis, so the Victorian courts had to wrestle with unions that resembled marriage in every way, yet did not meet its most basic requirements. The majority of those who lived in irregular unions did so because they could not marry legally. Others, though, chose not to marry, from indifference, from class differences, or because they dissented from marriage for philosophical reasons. This book looks at each motivation in turn, highlighting class, gender and generational differences, as well as the reactions of wider kin and community. It shows how these couples slowly widened the definition of legal marriage, preparing the way for the more substantial changes of the twentieth century.
Roman Catholic women's congregations are an enigma of nineteenth century social history. Over 10,000 women, establishing and managing significant Catholic educational, health care and social welfare institutions in England and Wales, have virtually disappeared from history. In nineteenth-century England, representations of women religious were ambiguous and contested from both within and without the convent. This book places women religious in the centre of nineteenth-century social history and reveals how religious activism shaped the identity of Catholic women religious. It is devoted to evolution of religious life and the early monastic life of the women. Catholic women were not pushed into becoming women religious. On the basis of their available options, they chose a path that best suited their personal, spiritual, economic and vocational needs. The postulancy and novitiate period formed a rite of passage that tested the vocation of each aspirant. The book explores the religious activism of women religious through their missionary identity and professional identity. The labour of these women was linked to their role as evangelisers. The book deals with the development of a congregation's corporate identity which brought together a disparate group of women under the banner of religious life. It looks specifically at class and ethnicity and the women who entered religious life, and identifies the source of authority for the congregation and the individual sister.
Sports history offers many profound insights into the character and complexities of modern imperial rule. This book examines the fortunes of cricket in various colonies as the sport spread across the British Empire. It helps to explain why cricket was so successful, even in places like India, Pakistan and the West Indies where the Anglo-Saxon element remained in a small minority. The story of imperial cricket is really about the colonial quest for identity in the face of the colonisers' search for authority. The cricket phenomenon was established in nineteenth-century England when the Victorians began glorifying the game as a perfect system of manners, ethics and morals. Cricket has exemplified the colonial relationship between England and Australia and expressed imperialist notions to the greatest extent. In the study of the transfer of imperial cultural forms, South Africa provides one of the most fascinating case studies. From its beginnings in semi-organised form through its unfolding into a contemporary internationalised structure, Caribbean cricket has both marked and been marked by a tight affiliation with complex social processing in the islands and states which make up the West Indies. New Zealand rugby demonstrates many of the themes central to cricket in other countries. While cricket was played in India from 1721 and the Calcutta Cricket Club is probably the second oldest cricket club in the world, the indigenous population was not encouraged to play cricket.
‘works of mercy’. Their work and the work of other active
simple-vowed women religious was a striking, visible and dynamic factor in
the growth of philanthropy in nineteenth-centuryEngland. Despite this, the
philanthropic and evangelical activity of women religious is virtually
invisible in historical texts.2 The persistent image of women religious
projected in these texts was of women with ‘eyes cast down’, subservient
and obedient to a church hierarchy that denied or limited their public voice.
In addressing the needs of their church, nineteenth-century women
adulation accorded in the nineteenth
century to their descendant Alfred. This chapter has outlined the general
conditions and contexts which allowed the cult of an Anglo-Saxon king to
flourish in nineteenth-centuryEngland. What it has not fully answered,
however, is the question of why that Saxon king was Alfred. The answer to
this seems to reside in the sheer amount and variety of source materials
available for his life – a body of Anglo-Saxon, late medieval and early
modern texts that made Alfred the most documented secular character in
pre-Conquest English history
degrees of prohibited marriage) based on
Leviticus had been hotly debated throughout northern Europe at least since
the Reformation, and by the end of the eighteenth century Continental civil
law, not religious law, came to define incest increasingly in terms of consanguinity.92 The narrowing legal definition of incest to exclude relationships of
affinity was, however, not completely abandoned in eighteenth- and nineteenth-centuryEngland. The closeness of this mixed-sex relationship and the
blurring between consanguineous and affinal kin made brother–sister interaction
Politics, reform and the demise of medico-gentility
be fully understood as constitutive of a much wider transformation
in the cultures and politics of early nineteenth-centuryEngland. As Philip
Harling has suggested, later eighteenth-century assaults on ‘Old Corruption’,
The asylum revolution
such as those initiated by Christopher Wyvil and the Yorkshire Association,
were primarily concerned with ‘economical reform’, with ridding the state
of jobbery and financial inefficiency.129 Such concerns were clearly evident
in Mason’s and his associates’ initial objection to Hunter’s proposed salary
in the late 1780s
this is what was taught to them in the schools’. Meg Gomersall,
Working-Class Girls in Nineteenth-CenturyEngland (London: Macmillan Press,
1997), p. 118.
27 DHM: C3 ‘Acts of Superior Authority 1858–1920’, 24 September 1881.
28 John P. Marmion, ‘Cornelia Connelly’s Work in Education, 1848–1879’,
doctoral thesis, University of Manchester, 1984, p. 299.
29 SMG: I/D/17 ‘Foundation in Woodford Green 1894’, 2 August 1895.
30 [Wheaton], 1924, pp. 104–5.
Forming a novice
These are the virtues they ought to try to practise else they are not to become