The Arctic region has been the subject of much popular writing. This book considers nineteenth-century representations of the Arctic, and draws upon an extensive range of evidence that will allow the 'widest connections' to emerge from a 'cross-disciplinary analysis' using different methodologies and subject matter. It positions the Arctic alongside more thoroughly investigated theatres of Victorian enterprise. In the nineteenth century, most images were in the form of paintings, travel narratives, lectures given by the explorers themselves and photographs. The book explores key themes in Arctic images which impacted on subsequent representations through text, painting and photography. For much of the nineteenth century, national and regional geographical societies promoted exploration, and rewarded heroic endeavor. The book discusses images of the Arctic which originated in the activities of the geographical societies. The Times provided very low-key reporting of Arctic expeditions, as evidenced by its coverage of the missions of Sir John Franklin and James Clark Ross. However, the illustrated weekly became one of the main sources of popular representations of the Arctic. The book looks at the exhibitions of Arctic peoples, Arctic exploration and Arctic fauna in Britain. Late nineteenth-century exhibitions which featured the Arctic were essentially nostalgic in tone. The Golliwogg's Polar Adventures, published in 1900, drew on adult representations of the Arctic and will have confirmed and reinforced children's perceptions of the region. Text books, board games and novels helped to keep the subject alive among the young.
both nineteenth-centuryexhibition buildings and railways.
Stained glass as propaganda
The Battle of Bouvines: a model of victory
Throughout the nineteenth century, historic events were reimagined and
revived to strengthen and validate recent military campaigns. At the Paris
Exposition of 1889, stained glass windows commemorating the historic
Battle of Bouvines, commissioned for the church of Saint-Pierre, Bouvines,
were exhibited in the ogival bays of the Galerie des Machines, where they
served as both a local and national symbol of French victory in times
The changing role of migration museums in Australia
concerned with defining relations
between different cohorts of people. The arguments will be developed with
reference to two Australian museums – the Migration Museum in Adelaide,
which uses the more conventional pedagogies of looking, reading and listening, and the Immigration Museum in Melbourne which is experimenting with a pedagogy of feeling alongside the other three.
The inspiration for describing interpretative approaches as a form of
‘pedagogy’ comes from Tony Bennett’s3 work on late nineteenth-centuryexhibitions and his focus on the way in which they embodied
the ‘Oriental’ female compared to those of the male, as well as with
the genital size and sexual prowess of African men.8 He quite explicitly exhibits the other as sexual body. In early nineteenth-centuryexhibitions of Saartjie
Baartman, the ‘Hottentot Venus’ – like Margaret Cadmore, a Southern African
extreme other – the ﬂeshy, ‘animal’ black was represented to the eyes of Europe
as a single female body. It was evidence as concrete as it was possible to obtain
of the implacable physicality of the other woman.9
Under colonialism such representations of course
in whatever country it was held, was an apparently amorphous hotchpotch
of artistic, technological and trade exemplars, sights and wonders
informative and diverting, more or less centred on a stated theme.
Twentieth-century attempts at providing a rationale have too often
foundered on the rocks of national pride, racial superiority or the discerned
exhibitors gain commissions and influence abroad, and considers the ways in which these
events shaped exhibitors’ reputations. Finally, Chapter 5 discusses how
the exhibition environment stimulated new iconographies and meanings
in stained glass, thinking particularly about how the exhibits reflected, and
Windows for the world
influenced, some of the global political themes of the nineteenth-centuryexhibitions: nationalism, imperialism, and human variety.
In spite of recent interest in transnational and global art histories, and
John Cann, Snakes Alive! Snake Experts
& Antidote Sellers of Australia (Kenthurst: Kangaroo
Press, 1986 ), pp. 24–5.
Peter H. Hoffenberg, ‘“A science
of our own”: nineteenthcenturyexhibitions, Australians and
the history of science’, in Brett M. Bennett and Joseph M
The British Empire and the Crystal Palace, 1851–1911
‘Improvement’ of the World (New Haven, CT: Yale
University Press, 2000). On Orientalism and nineteenth-centuryexhibitions, see Timothy Mitchell, ‘The World as
Exhibition’, Comparative Studies in Society and History
31 (1989), pp. 217–36.
Illustrated London News , 4 October 1851
1846 . 48
As Barrett has pointed out in his analysis of the contents of various
mid-nineteenth-centuryexhibitions, the numerous images of
Ireland exhibited in Dublin and Cork in the 1850s and 1860s were always
‘more than balanced by scenes from Britain, France, Italy and other
places’. The Dublin exhibition of 1865, for example, devoted a whole
gallery to ‘soldiers who had won the Victoria Cross in
, he believed a
building ought to be legible to everyone.
Beginning with the rise in popularity of interior design in
the 1870s, professional and lay interest in the applied arts grew
towards the end of the nineteenthcentury. Exhibitions, magazines, trade
shows, and public lectures all helped disseminate knowledge about
domestic design. 8 When
Muthesius founded the Werkbund