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The introduction of the curatorial function
Octavian Esanu

norms and procedures,” is a direct reference to what some former employers and observers believe to have been the main contribution of these organizations in the constitution of the new paradigm of contemporary art. And while the latter has been advertised and promoted as the “art of the open society,” or as the “free art concept”  1 (whose ideological underpinnings are discussed in the next chapter in the context of Cold War liberalism), here I examine some of the new patterns and norms of this new paradigm, by

in The postsocialist contemporary
Eglantine Staunton

As explained in the Introduction, investigating France's relationship to human protection over time requires analysing a tale of two norms where the first is France's domestic norm of human protection, and the second is the dominant international principle or norm of human protection at the time – humanitarian intervention during the 1990s and R2P since the 2000s. Although fascinating, this task is quite challenging from a theoretical and methodological point of view for two reasons. First, it calls for a framework that allows the

in France, humanitarian intervention and the responsibility to protect
Oliver Daddow

(see for example Weldon 1953) but recent developments in philosophy and linguistic theory have sharpened our ability to deconstruct the language–reality dichotomy. Scholars from myriad theoretical traditions have sharpened the intellectual tools we use to evaluate the functions of language in politics and political communications, particularly as far as the gathering and exercise of power go. This chapter provides the theoretical backdrop to the study by marrying discourse theory to an adapted version of Martha Finnemore and Kathryn Sikkink’s theory of ‘norm

in New Labour and the European Union
Susan Park

3402 World Bank Group:2634Prelims 12/11/09 14:56 Page 127 4 IFC and norms of sustainable finance Introduction While socialisation of the World Bank began in the 1980s, IFC became the focus of TEANs for investing in environmentally destructive development in the 1990s. This chapter documents how direct and indirect socialisation by TEANs led to an identity shift in IFC through its projects, policies and institutions. Although different from the Bank, these components again demonstrate how IFC consumed sustainable development norms as a result of TEAN

in World Bank Group interactions with environmentalists
Editor’s Introduction
Michaël Neuman, Fernando Espada, and Róisín Read

being a humanitarian worker has never been so complex and dangerous. Many humanitarian narratives are fuelled by the fears of organisations: they see their working space reduced under the joint pressure of states increasingly asserting their sovereignty and of more frequent security incidents due to direct targeting, all happening in the context of widespread erosion of international norms ( Shaheen, 2016 ; Bouchet-Saulnier and Whittall, 2019 ; UN Security Council

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Eglantine Staunton

This chapter investigates France's conception of, and contribution to, human protection from 1987 to 1993. This period is particularly interesting because on the one hand, it corresponds to the emergence of France's domestic norm of human protection during François Mitterrand's presidency (1981–95), and on the other, it witnessed the emergence of the international principle that was humanitarian intervention. 1 Consequently, it allows the analysis of both processes and their interplay in order

in France, humanitarian intervention and the responsibility to protect
Promoting inclusivity in the mediation of the Intergovernmental Authority on Development in South Sudan
Jamie Pring

reflects the current mediation practice of promoting certain norms, defined as ‘collective expectations about proper behaviour for a given identity’ (Katzenstein 1996 : 5). These norms, such as transitional justice and gender equality, are in addition to their main mandate of assisting conflict parties towards a peacefully negotiated agreement. The norm most salient in this case is inclusivity, defined as ‘the extent and manner in which the views and needs of conflict parties and other stakeholders are represented and integrated into the process and outcome of a

in Armed non-state actors and the politics of recognition
Insight from Northeast Nigeria
Chikezirim C. Nwoke, Jennifer Becker, Sofiya Popovych, Mathew Gabriel, and Logan Cochrane

, Ireland, the Netherlands and Sweden, which have more feminist approaches to foreign assistance, require that most assistance sectors, including humanitarian activities, be at the very least gender sensitive ( OECD, 2021 ). This means that interventions must explicitly take into consideration the unique needs, capacities and potential for different impacts on girls, boys, women and men. Gender transformative actions are broad in type, but can be summarised as those that address the root causes and social norms underpinning gender inequalities, which may also include

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Jan Lukas Buterman

, predicated on cisheterosexual norms as an unquestioned imaginarium of the ‘good’ citizen. It finds that this may exclude trans and queer persons within a state’s borders from enjoying the benefits of citizenship, in addition to constructing stateless persons by excluding some people from accessing birth certificates. Identification technologies as technologies of the

in Statelessness, governance, and the problem of citizenship
Expanding Gender Norms to Marriage Drivers Facing Boys and Men in South Sudan
Michelle Lokot, Lisa DiPangrazio, Dorcas Acen, Veronica Gatpan, and Ronald Apunyo

. A multi-country study in Kenya, Uganda, Zambia and Senegal identified how child marriage is influenced by intersections between poverty, lack of educational opportunities and norms that discriminate against girls ( Petroni et al. , 2017 ). In many contexts, marriage is linked to the onset of puberty ( Lal, 2015 ). Lower educational attainment may be a risk factor as well as a consequence of child marriage ( Stark, 2018 ). Child marriage may occur more among communities facing poverty ( Efevbera et al., 2019 ; Stark, 2018 ; UNICEF, 2014 ), communities living

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs