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Myrto Tsakatika

5 Openness Introduction Identifiability enables us to locate responsibility for political outcomes and thereby makes the operation of the practice of accountability possible, otherwise we would not be able to hold agents to account. But a system of governance has another feature whose absence or failure makes accountability impossible: openness. Without information about the workings of the process of governance, political agents cannot form judgements about political responsibility; they cannot understand why a political agent is responsible, and they cannot

in Political responsibility and the European Union
Open Access (free)
The beast that no-one could – or should – control?
Stephen Curry

2 Open access: the beast that no-one could – or should – control? Stephen Curry ‘The main thing, it seems to me, is to remember that technology manufactures not gadgets, but social change,’ declared science historian and broadcaster James Burke in a lecture given in 1985 (Burke, 2005). This was several years before the rise of the personal computer and the internet. But history’s knack of repeating itself means that the words are no less true of the digital transformation of the world in the last two decades. The recasting of information into digital forms that

in Science and the politics of openness
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Do they “give the power back” to the people?
Marcel H. Van Herpen

a number of liberal democracies: open primaries. These are also presented as “giving the power back” to the people. But do they? “Giving the people a voice”: primaries in the United States One of the basic institutions of a modern democracy is the political party: a political organization, led by professionals, competing for the votes of the electorate. Political parties are in most countries fairly modern phenomena. For most of the nineteenth century politics was not yet a profession but the activity of “honorable citizens,” for whom “representing the people

in The end of populism
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A history
Author: Daniel Weinbren

This book focuses on the handful of innovators who 'were crucial' for the creation of the Open University (OU), which enjoyed a 'rapid gestation period'. It is about the political framework, positioning the OU within the patterns of convergence and divergence in the expanding higher education system of the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries. The OU has its roots in more than a century of engagement with those excluded from conventional higher education. The book is an assessment of the ways in which, since the 1990s, the OU has sought to enable learners to work together to create knowledge. One way to understand the development of the OU is in terms of a business model. The book addresses the crucible in which the OU was formed in terms of politics, socio-economic developments and innovations in teaching. Through practice, reflection and amendment of teaching the OU developed ways of supporting learning through participation in dialogues. The book concentrates upon the activities of Harold Wilson and a small group around him who were responsible for the creation and early running of the university. It focuses on how governments sought to deploy versions of the market across the higher education sector. The book outlines the OU's continued development of self-directed, student-centred learning.

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Daniel Weinbren

7 Open to people1 In his inaugural speech as Foundation Chancellor of the OU, Geoffrey Crowther declared the new institution ‘open in many ways, but first of all to people’. The commitment to inclusivity was linked to an aspiration to aim ‘higher and wider’ than its acknowledged role as an ‘educational rescue mission’. The impacts of the OU’s strategies were significant at a societal level, but, by meeting needs for higher education, it has also fostered the realisation of individual potential within a diverse constituency: ‘There are no limits on persons.’2 The

in The Open University
Christopher T. Marsden

Union legislation and regulation on the Open Internet Stage of Legislation/Regulation 2007 Telecoms Package a 2013 Telecoms Single Market b Commission adoption of Proposal 13 November 2007 c 11 September 2013 d Parliament Opinion on First Reading 24 September 2008 3 April 2014 Parliament Opinion on Trilogue

in Network neutrality
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Heather Walton

CHAPTER 8 An open conclusion And if literature is still a girl … This book began by interrogating the relations between literature and theology as they are presented in contemporary theological thinking. I demonstrated that this interdisciplinary encounter has been constructed as a gendered relationship in which literature has functioned as the subordinated feminine term. I then argued that if ‘literature is a girl’ this no longer implies a continuing hierarchical relationship between the disciplines. Both feminist politics and poststructuralist theory have

in Literature, theology and feminism
Here be monsters

This book contributes to the study of science and politics by shedding light on sometimes dark, hidden or ignored aspects of openness as a core policy agenda. While opening up of science to public scrutiny and public deliberation is good in principle, various dilemmas and problems are entailed by this move, which also should be made public and be discussed more openly. Developed as a solution to perceived crises in science/society relations, openness and transparency initiatives might hide ‘monsters’ that need to be made visible and need to be examined. Chapters in this book deal with four themes: transparency in the context of science in the public sphere; responsibility in the context of in contemporary research practice and governance, both globally and locally; experts in the context of policy-making, risk assessment and the regulation of science; and faith in the context of tensions and misunderstandings between science and religion. Each section of the book contains an opening essay by experts on a particular theme (Mark Brown, Benjamin Worthy, Barbara Prainsack/Sabina Leonelli, Chris Toumey). The book closes with an epilogue by Stephen Turner and an essay by John Holmwood. At present, openness in science is more important than ever. This book should be of interest to academics and members of the public who want to know more about the challenges and opportunities of 'making science public' - the theme of a Leverhulme Trust funded research programme on which this book is based.

Representations of Vampires and the Undead from the Enlightenment to the Present Day
Editors: Sam George and Bill Hughes

The Open Graves, Open Minds project discussed in this book relates the undead in literature, art and other media to questions concerning gender, technology, consumption and social change. The story of vampires, since their discovery in eighteenth-century Europe, is one of transformations and interbreedings of genre, which mediate shifts in ways of knowing and doubting. It is marked by metamorphoses of the vampire itself, from monstrous to sympathetic, but always fascinatingly Other. Certain tropes, such as optical figures, and particularly that of reflection, recur throughout, calling attention to the preoccupation with epistemology in vampire narratives. The book focuses on various aspects of these themes as the story unfolds to the present day. It shows how the persona of Lord Byron became an effective vehicle for the vampire of fiction as a transformed Gothic mode, and grapples with the figure of the non-reflecting vampire who casts no shadow, moving deftly between Dracula and Wilde's Dorian Gray and the 'vampire painting' and installations of the contemporary artist David Reed. The book gives a luminous account of early vampire cinema as a 'Kingdom of shadows', and explores the undead at the interface, where knowing becomes problematic: 'unsettlement'. The book also unearths the folklore roots of vampire fiction and offers a glimpse of how contemporary writers adapt the perennial figure.

Cosmopolitanism and the psychoanalysis of groups
Jackie Stacey

On being open to difference: cosmopolitanism and the psychoanalysis of groups Jackie Stacey What might it mean to be open to difference? The touchstone of the current cosmopolitan vision, the concept of openness to difference, has been widely welcomed in debates across the humanities and social sciences.1 But how do we know when others are open to the differences we represent and vice versa? What is the ­register of such openness: is it cognition, intention, affect, viscera? And difference in relation to whom or what exactly? What kind of openness is at the

in Writing otherwise