Rhetoric of oppression and social
Can’t get no food to eat, can’t get no money to spend.
Burning Spear, “Marcus Garvey,” 1975
Open your eyes and look with it
Are you satisfied with the life you’re living?
Bob Marley & the Wailers, “Exodus,” 1977
No need to shift through time and space into reality
Cause it’s right up in your face it is so plain to see.
Jahmali, “Time and space,” 1998
The message contained in reggae music is above all a message of
denunciation: the point is to show what is really happening, based
on the fundamental distinction made
Oppression and consensus-building:
policing communities in fascist Italy
Policing communities in fascist Italy
Though endowing the police with greater powers and bringing
opportunities for reform, the fascist dictatorship increased the burden
and breadth of police tasks. This saw, above all, an intensification in
political policing, determined by a wider definition than previously
of what constituted ‘anti-national’ activity. Partly based on a detailed
case study of the province and city of Siena, this chapter examines the
Oppression and suppression of the
sexual deviant, 1939–1967
I would sometimes question the treatments we were giving. [. . .] Then I
would get home and turn on the television [. . .] and all over it was either
‘homosexuals should be accepted’, or ‘homosexuality is illegal, it is wrong,
these people are irredeemable.’ And thank goodness; ‘psychiatry is trying to
do something about it.’ [. . .] I just didn’t know who was right and what was
wrong, it left me very perplexed.1
Nurses caring for patients receiving treatments for sexual deviations
Anecdotal evidence of the testimonies of patients who received treatments for sexual deviations and medical attitudes towards them are scattered in the recorded accounts of gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgendered, intersex and queer/questioning (GLBTIQ) people. This book examines the plight of men who were institutionalised in British mental hospitals to receive 'treatment' for homosexuality and transvestism, and the perceptions and actions of the men and women who nursed them. It explores why the majority of the nurses followed orders in administering the treatment - in spite of the zero success-rate in 'straightening out' queer men - but also why a small number surreptitiously defied their superiors by engaging in fascinating subversive behaviours. The book is specifically about the treatments developed for sexual deviations in the UK. Transvestism was also treated fairly widely; however, not to the same extent as homosexuality. After an examination of the oppression and suppression of the sexual deviant, the introduction of aversion therapies for sexual deviance is considered. During the 1930s-1950s, mental health care witnessed a spirit of 'therapeutic optimism' as new somatic treatments and therapies were introduced in mental hospitals. The book also examines the impact these had on the role of mental nurses and explores how such treatments may have essentially normalised nurses to implement painful and distressing 'therapeutic' interventions . The book interprets the testimonies of these 'subversive nurses'. Finally, it explores the inception of 'nurse therapists' and discusses their role in administering aversion therapy.
Through an analysis of Dracula, this article will explore some of the hyperbolic rhetoric surrounding drug use and womens place in medical discourse that has, like the Count himself, risen again and again in our culture. It argues that Dracula attempts – through popular metaphors of addiction, shifting terminologies about drug use, and British anxieties about immigration – to make a clear but highly unstable distinction between licit and illicit drug use. In the process, Stoker‘s novel illuminates a complex relationship between middle-class women and the opiates that paradoxically serve as a site of patriarchal oppression and resistance to it.
In this introduction, we consider the intersection of two much debated and controversial concepts: postfeminism and Gothic, and we designate a new analytical category of ‘Postfeminist Gothic’. We suggest that postfeminism and Gothic are linked by their eschewal of a binary logic and their ‘anxiety about meaning’. As we contend, ‘Postfeminist Gothic’ moves beyond the Female Gothic with its historical associations with second wave feminism and female/feminine victimisation and it circumscribes a new space for critical exchange that re-examines notions of gender, agency and oppression.
In the early gothic literature of the eighteenth century danger lurked in the darkness beneath the pointed arches of gothic buildings. During the nineteenth century, there was a progressive, although never complete, dislocation of gothic literary readings from gothic architecture. This article explores a phase in that development through discussion of a series of dark illustrations produced by Hablot Knight Browne to illustrate novels by Charles Dickens. These show the way in which the rounded arches of neo-classical architecture were depicted in the mid-nineteenth century as locales of oppression and obscurity. Such depictions acted, in an age of political and moral reform, to critique the values of the system of power and authority that such architecture represented.
Theorizing the Nineteenth-Century Gothic Pharmography
Carol Margaret Davison
Liberty, a term dear to the Enlightenments emancipatory project, has long been a key concept in the Gothic. No branch of the Gothic more powerfully or creatively examines the complexities of the liberty question than the Gothic pharmography – a narrative chronicling drug/alcohol seduction and addiction. Drawing on three novelistic sub-genres – the Oriental tale, the imperial Gothic, and the Urban Gothic – the Gothic pharmography coalesces several distinct nineteenth-century debates – the nature of the will and liberal individualism; social oppression and conformity; urban and national degeneration; and British imperialist expansion, which involved the perceived anxiety-inducing sense of Britains growing economic dependence on the non-Western world. This essay offers an overview of the Gothic pharmography from the late eighteenth century through to the fin de siècle in Marie Corelli‘s Wormwood.
Epistemology and Revolution in Charles Brockden Brown‘s
In Wieland, Charles Brockden Brown attempted to negotiate varying forces confronting
contemporary American religious and political life. Through the transformation of the
temple into a Gothic zone Brown injects questions of epistemological uncertainty, clashing
forces of rational Enlightenment and supernatural faith. Brown outlines the religiously
motivated founding of the nation reacting to European oppression as allegorical to the
Wieland patriarchs journey from the Old to New World, and his construction of the temple
demonstrates the establishment of new institutions in the American landscape. Religious
liberty turns into extremism, producing Gothic violence that transforms the temple into a
site of horror and destruction. His children attempt to re-transform the temple along
rational Enlightenment lines much the same as Brown perceived the need for America to
distance itself from its revolutionary and religious extremist origins. Yet the failure of
rationalism to expunge the supernatural aura from the temple allows for the tragic events
to transpire that comprise the bulk of the novel. Ultimately, Brown‘s Gothic novel evinces
the critical nature of the epistemological clash he sees taking place for the direction
America will take, and his concerns that Gothic violence will reverberate throughout
future generations find their expression in Wieland‘s temple.