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Transdniestria as a case study
Graeme P. Herd
Anne C. Aldis

organised crime is complex and heavily contested. Enlargement and the opening of EU borders to new EU members from the east was understood as exporting a zone of peace and security to the east, as Schengen borders have the potential to filter out criminal activity. The Czech Republic, for example, has benefited greatly from undertaking reforms necessary to enter the Schengen zone. Indeed, serious crime has

in The security dimensions of EU enlargement
James L. Newell

5 Political corruption and organised crime Introduction In the last chapter we saw that corrupt exchanges can involve the interaction of a range of different types of actor. This chapter focusses on one of those types: the third-party enforcers. Enforcers offer the threat – and sometimes the actuality – of violence to ensure that, once the parties to a corrupt exchange have agreed to do business and have agreed terms, the terms are respected. To that extent, they offer something analogous to the insurance policies available in the world of legal contracts to

in Corruption in contemporary politics
Carlos Solar
Markus Hochmüller

for private gain; informal networks that seek to channel funds for illicit use; and complex webs of dependencies between the armed forces and private business, military industry, politics, and organised crime. The cases of Chile and Guatemala suggest that the third wave of democratisation has not erased corrupt practices in the military – an institution regarded as the carrier of modernisation during the Cold War period (Huntington 1968 ). This chapter is a first attempt to provide an explanation as to why military

in Governing the military
Ernesto Schwartz-Marin
Arely Cruz-Santiago

The article will present the findings of ethnographic research into the Colombian and Mexican forensic systems, introducing the first citizen-led exhumation project made possible through the cooperation of scholars, forensic specialists and interested citizens in Mexico. The coupling evolution and mutual re-constitution of forensic science will be explored, including new forms of citizenship and nation building projects – all approached as lived experience – in two of Latin America‘s most complex contexts: organised crime and mass death.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Wider Europe, weaker Europe?

The first European Union's (EU) enlargement of the twenty-first century coincides with a period of international tension and transition. Tensions have been apparent over: the war in Iraq, the 'War on Terror', immigration, organised crime, ethnic confrontation, human rights, energy resources and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD). The EU has made genuine progress in developing its security policies since the launch of the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) and Justice and Home Affairs (JHA) in the Treaty on European Union (TEU). This book examines the impact that enlargement will have on leadership within the EU, a pre-requisite for policy coherence. It focuses on what has been Europe's most significant region in terms of security challenges and international responses since the end of the Cold War: the Balkan. The book provides an overview of the foreign policy priorities and interests of the new member states (NMS), highlighting areas of match and mismatch with those of the EU fifteen. Counter-terrorism has emerged from the shadows of the EU's Third Pillar, and has been propelled to the forefront of the EU's internal agenda, driven by the demands of the 'War on Terror'. The book discusses the core elements of the EU's emerging common external border management, with a focus on the creation of the EU's new External Borders Agency and the Schengen Borders Code. While the first two are declarative partnership and declarative negativism, the last two reflect the struggle between pragmatism and Soviet-style suspicion of Western bureaucrats.

Meeting the challenge of internal security
Emil Kirchner
James Sperling

the soft underbelly of European societies. This chapter investigates the EU’s emerging role as a provider of internal security policies, what we call the policies of protection. The EU has targeted two general threats to internal security, organised crime and terrorism. Both organised crime and terrorism present a security threat when the activities of transnational criminal organisations or terrorist

in EU security governance
Math Noortmann
Luke D. Graham

ICC Statute and has accepted all amendments. 111 Cross-border organised crime The increase in cross-border organised crime has led to further international cooperation between states. This cooperation is characterised by: an increase in the number of multilateral and bilateral treaties

in The basics of international law
Phil Williams

and an absence of serious threats to its national security. Consequently, serious political debate over national security had been stultified. National attention had been fixated on scandals ranging from presidential indiscretions and pardons to the O. J. Simpson trial and the disappearance of a Washington intern. There had been voices in the national security community, including on the National Security Council itself, warning about transnational threats such as terrorism and organised crime.4 Yet, the military focus had remained on threats from nation

in Limiting institutions?
The Albanian mafia
Xavier Raufer

, even clearer: ‘Kosovo is in chaos’, the province has become ‘a mafia paradise’ (RFE/RL Newsline 21 March 2000). This is not the first time that the term ‘mafia’ has served to describe organised crime at work throughout the albanophone area in the Balkans. But this debased word has lost so much force that now it describes any band of hoodlums. Whereas a real mafia is, on the contrary, a precise, very definite criminal entity having little in common with the ‘milieu’ of villains which is normally found almost everywhere in the world. A The real mafia A mafia is a permanent

in Potentials of disorder
Abstract only
Richard Lapper

. In March 2018, 50 per cent of Brazilians told the pollster Ibope that they agreed with the statement, “A good thief is a dead thief.” 5 This seemed to represent high levels of explicit support for the kind of hardline repression favoured by Bolsonaro. So how had Brazil got to this point? The answer lies in the relationship between poor communities, the drug traffic, the growth of armed gangs, the policing response, and the country’s chaotic prison system. The growth of organised crime Brazil drug gangs have unusual origins in the sense that there is an overlap

in Beef, Bible and Bullets