THE CONSIDERATION of the
unassimilable figure of Heathcliff does raise another issue: what
happens to the orphan children of the poor who are not ultimately
recouped into families? This marginalised figure without family ties
dominates juvenile literature, specifically popular orphan adventure
narratives – the legacy of which is to be found in The Pirates
Maria Holmgren Troy, Elizabeth Kella, and Helena Wahlström
Orphans and American literature:
texts, intertexts, and contexts
The word ‘orphan’ suggests being cut off from society, abandoned and
alone; its opposite conjures visions of family, connectedness, roots,
belonging – all subsumed in the image of home. (Porter, 2003: 101)
Orphans in contemporary US novels gain significance in relation
to earlier American literature and the history of orphanhood in
the USA. This chapter therefore situates our study in both literary
and socio-historical contexts, focusing on earlier discussions of the
American orphan figure in
‘The Dutch orphans’: war refugees in
Following the outbreak of war, when the flow of refugees from Nazi Europe
came to an abrupt end, both major refugee committees in Manchester turned
their attention to the task of supporting, morally and financially, some of the
8,000 refugees who had already arrived in the region. Recognising that the
funds of voluntary agencies had been all but exhausted by the work of reception, and accepting, for the first time, direct responsibility for the welfare
of refugees, the government now stepped in with increasingly
plans for systematic emigration of pauper orphans and children to the
colonies. The emigration to the colonies of orphan children of the poor
marked both a new phase in the state (parish) provision for such
children and a concerted effort to ensure the familial nature of empire
by settling the colonies with British children. The two endeavours
coincide in the notion that the colonies were the birthright of British
This book argues that Victorian culture perceived the orphan as a scapegoat - a
promise and a threat, a poison and a cure. It first establishes a discursive
context in which to read the orphan figure as embodying a difference within the
family. To do so, it describes the figure of Heathcliff in Wuthering
Heights against a number of discourses - namely, those of the foundling,
the orphan as foreigner, and the orphan as criminal. The book then looks at the
role of the orphan and popular orphan adventure narratives in policing and
extending empire. It considers Charles Dickens's 'The Perils of
Certain English Prisoners, and Their Treasure in Women, Children, Silver and
Jewels' within the context of both the Indian Mutiny of 1857 and
Dickens's own imperial sympathies. The book also offers the historical
context for the schemes adopted at the time for emigrating orphans. It focuses
on the three main destinations -Bermuda, New South Wales and Canada - in order
to consider the motivations behind the emigrating of orphans and the
contemporary evaluations of it. In this historical context, the book positions
Rose Macaulay's Orphan Island (1924), which in its Utopian framework
poses problems for the both the rationale of the schemes and for current debates
within post-colonial studies. It further looks at the exiling of difference, in
George Eliot's Daniel Deronda and the return of the exiled orphan
from the colonies to the heart of empire, London, in Dickens's The
Mystery of Edwin Drood.
Foundlings and orphans:
In the late medieval and early modern centuries, organised charities were much concerned with protecting the honour of women and girls and, incidentally, the reputation
of the parents, husbands and brothers expected to take care of their morals. Among
the candidates for help were young women of respectable background, innocents who,
out of ill-luck or naivety rather than depravity, had become pregnant outside marriage.
Some had trusted in lovers’ false promises; others were victims of rape or of casual
-reliance, of the individual freed from social constraints, her writing reveals a concurrent concern for the conflicting ties of kinship and home. This roots Robinson's work within another nineteenth-century literary tradition: that of the domestic novel.
In this essay, I argue that locating her work in this female tradition offers insight into her exploration of self-reliance and its relationship to an ethic-of-care, further elucidating Robinson's contemporary feminist concerns. I consider her use of the female orphan, a
Making Home explores the orphan child as a trope in contemporary US fiction, arguing that in times of perceived national crisis concerns about American identity, family, and literary history are articulated around this literary figure. The book focuses on orphan figures in a broad, multi-ethnic range of contemporary fiction by Barbara Kingsolver, Linda Hogan, Leslie Marmon Silko, Marilynne Robinson, Michael Cunningham, Jonathan Safran Foer, John Irving, Kaye Gibbons, Octavia Butler, Jewelle Gomez, and Toni Morrison. It also investigates genres as carriers of cultural memory, looking particularly at the captivity narrative, historical fiction, speculative fiction, the sentimental novel, and the bildungsroman. From a decisively literary perspective, Making Home engages socio-political concerns such as mixed-race families, child welfare, multiculturalism, and racial and national identity, as well as shifting definitions of familial, national, and literary home. By analyzing how contemporary novels both incorporate and resist gendered and raced literary conventions, how they elaborate on symbolic and factual meanings of orphanhood, and how they explore kinship beyond the nuclear and/or adoptive family, this book offers something distinctly new in American literary studies. It is a crucial study for students and scholars interested in the links between literature and identity, questions of inclusion and exclusion in national ideology, and definitions of family and childhood.
Visual Advocacy in the Early Decades of Humanitarian Cinema
Soviets, one of their most notorious films is Famine in Russia [Soviet film] . One copy is kept in the ICRC archives. See Cosandey for a whole discussion ( 1998 : 23–7).
Aurora Mardiganian played her own role in Auction of Souls ; a former child orphan played Alice in Alice in Hungerland .
Author’s translation from French.
Interestingly, the international impetus to save children created a new filmic audience – children in the West – that was also mobilized through fiction-based movies. See Jackie in the West (1921, NER) or L
Local Understandings of Resilience after Typhoon Haiyan in Tacloban City, Philippines
Ara Joy Pacoma, Yvonne Su, and Angelie Genotiva
( 2010 ), ‘ Assets and Educational Outcomes: Child Development Accounts (CDAs) for Orphaned Children in Uganda ’, Child and Youth Services Review , 32 : 11 , 1585 – 90 .
( 1993 ), ‘ Are Coping Strategies a Cop Out? ’, Institute of Development Studies Bulletin , 24 : 4 , 60 – 72 .
( 2016 ), Recovery from Disaster ( London and New York : Routledge ).
( 2015 ), ‘ The Global