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Laura Peters

THE CONSIDERATION of the unassimilable figure of Heathcliff does raise another issue: what happens to the orphan children of the poor who are not ultimately recouped into families? This marginalised figure without family ties dominates juvenile literature, specifically popular orphan adventure narratives – the legacy of which is to be found in The Pirates of Penzance

in Orphan texts
Texts, intertexts, and contexts
Maria Holmgren Troy, Elizabeth Kella, and Helena Wahlström

1 Orphans and American literature: texts, intertexts, and contexts The word ‘orphan’ suggests being cut off from society, abandoned and alone; its opposite conjures visions of family, connectedness, roots, belonging – all subsumed in the image of home. (Porter, 2003: 101) Orphans in contemporary US novels gain significance in relation to earlier American literature and the history of orphanhood in the USA. This chapter therefore situates our study in both literary and socio-­historical contexts, focusing on earlier discussions of the American orphan figure in

in Making home
War refugees in Manchester
Bill Williams

21 ‘The Dutch orphans’: war refugees in Manchester Following the outbreak of war, when the flow of refugees from Nazi Europe came to an abrupt end, both major refugee committees in Manchester turned their attention to the task of supporting, morally and financially, some of the 8,000 refugees who had already arrived in the region. Recognising that the funds of voluntary agencies had been all but exhausted by the work of reception, and accepting, for the first time, direct responsibility for the welfare of refugees, the government now stepped in with increasingly

in ‘Jews and other foreigners’
Laura Peters

plans for systematic emigration of pauper orphans and children to the colonies. The emigration to the colonies of orphan children of the poor marked both a new phase in the state (parish) provision for such children and a concerted effort to ensure the familial nature of empire by settling the colonies with British children. The two endeavours coincide in the notion that the colonies were the birthright of British

in Orphan texts
Abstract only
Victorian orphans, culture and empire
Author: Laura Peters

This book argues that Victorian culture perceived the orphan as a scapegoat - a promise and a threat, a poison and a cure. It first establishes a discursive context in which to read the orphan figure as embodying a difference within the family. To do so, it describes the figure of Heathcliff in Wuthering Heights against a number of discourses - namely, those of the foundling, the orphan as foreigner, and the orphan as criminal. The book then looks at the role of the orphan and popular orphan adventure narratives in policing and extending empire. It considers Charles Dickens's 'The Perils of Certain English Prisoners, and Their Treasure in Women, Children, Silver and Jewels' within the context of both the Indian Mutiny of 1857 and Dickens's own imperial sympathies. The book also offers the historical context for the schemes adopted at the time for emigrating orphans. It focuses on the three main destinations -Bermuda, New South Wales and Canada - in order to consider the motivations behind the emigrating of orphans and the contemporary evaluations of it. In this historical context, the book positions Rose Macaulay's Orphan Island (1924), which in its Utopian framework poses problems for the both the rationale of the schemes and for current debates within post-colonial studies. It further looks at the exiling of difference, in George Eliot's Daniel Deronda and the return of the exiled orphan from the colonies to the heart of empire, London, in Dickens's The Mystery of Edwin Drood.

An introduction
Brian Pullan

125 7 Foundlings and orphans: an introduction In the late medieval and early modern centuries, organised charities were much concerned with protecting the honour of women and girls and, incidentally, the reputation of the parents, husbands and brothers expected to take care of their morals. Among the candidates for help were young women of respectable background, innocents who, out of ill-luck or naivety rather than depravity, had become pregnant outside marriage. Some had trusted in lovers’ false promises; others were victims of rape or of casual couplings

in Tolerance, Regulation and Rescue
Anna Maguire Elliott

-reliance, of the individual freed from social constraints, her writing reveals a concurrent concern for the conflicting ties of kinship and home. This roots Robinson's work within another nineteenth-century literary tradition: that of the domestic novel. 2 In this essay, I argue that locating her work in this female tradition offers insight into her exploration of self-reliance and its relationship to an ethic-of-care, further elucidating Robinson's contemporary feminist concerns. I consider her use of the female orphan, a

in Marilynne Robinson
Abstract only
Orphanhood, kinship, and cultural memory in contemporary American novels

Making Home explores the orphan child as a trope in contemporary US fiction, arguing that in times of perceived national crisis concerns about American identity, family, and literary history are articulated around this literary figure. The book focuses on orphan figures in a broad, multi-ethnic range of contemporary fiction by Barbara Kingsolver, Linda Hogan, Leslie Marmon Silko, Marilynne Robinson, Michael Cunningham, Jonathan Safran Foer, John Irving, Kaye Gibbons, Octavia Butler, Jewelle Gomez, and Toni Morrison. It also investigates genres as carriers of cultural memory, looking particularly at the captivity narrative, historical fiction, speculative fiction, the sentimental novel, and the bildungsroman. From a decisively literary perspective, Making Home engages socio-political concerns such as mixed-race families, child welfare, multiculturalism, and racial and national identity, as well as shifting definitions of familial, national, and literary home. By analyzing how contemporary novels both incorporate and resist gendered and raced literary conventions, how they elaborate on symbolic and factual meanings of orphanhood, and how they explore kinship beyond the nuclear and/or adoptive family, this book offers something distinctly new in American literary studies. It is a crucial study for students and scholars interested in the links between literature and identity, questions of inclusion and exclusion in national ideology, and definitions of family and childhood.

Visual Advocacy in the Early Decades of Humanitarian Cinema
Valérie Gorin

Soviets, one of their most notorious films is Famine in Russia [Soviet film] . One copy is kept in the ICRC archives. See Cosandey for a whole discussion ( 1998 : 23–7). 4 Aurora Mardiganian played her own role in Auction of Souls ; a former child orphan played Alice in Alice in Hungerland . 5 Author’s translation from French. 6 Interestingly, the international impetus to save children created a new filmic audience – children in the West – that was also mobilized through fiction-based movies. See Jackie in the West (1921, NER) or L

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Local Understandings of Resilience after Typhoon Haiyan in Tacloban City, Philippines
Ara Joy Pacoma, Yvonne Su, and Angelie Genotiva

, C. K. ( 2010 ), ‘ Assets and Educational Outcomes: Child Development Accounts (CDAs) for Orphaned Children in Uganda ’, Child and Youth Services Review , 32 : 11 , 1585 – 90 . Davies , S. ( 1993 ), ‘ Are Coping Strategies a Cop Out? ’, Institute of Development Studies Bulletin , 24 : 4 , 60 – 72 . Davis , I. and Alexander , D. ( 2016 ), Recovery from Disaster ( London and New York : Routledge ). Demirgüç-Kunt , A. , Klapper , L. , Singer , D. and Oudheusden , P. V. ( 2015 ), ‘ The Global

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs