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Is There Really No Place Like Home?
Marco Cucco

The outsourcing of film shoots has long been adopted by US producers to cut costs and improve box-office performance. According to the academic literature, outsourcing is exploited mainly for low- and middle-budget films, but this article aims to demonstrate that blockbusters are also migrating towards other states and countries to take part in an even more competitive film location market. It investigates 165 blockbusters released between 2003 and 2013. The collected data show that blockbuster shoots are not an exclusive to California, but are re-drawing the map of film production in favour of an even more polycentric and polyglot audiovisual panorama.

Film Studies
Regeneration meets the Private Finance Initiative
Stuart Hodkinson

2 Outsourcing on steroids: regeneration meets the Private Finance Initiative Following the Grenfell disaster, an astonishing revelation was made by the London Metropolitan Police Service: it had identified at least 60 companies and bodies involved in the tower’s 2014–16 refurbishment, part of a total of 383 organisations connected with its original construction or subsequent management and maintenance.1 This scale of splintered governance is indicative of what has happened to public housing under decades of privatisation and demunicipalisation. This chapter

in Safe as houses
Abstract only
Distance, deferral, and immunity in the urban governance of refugees
Jonathan Darling

the entire social organism to explode or implode.’ In the remaining parts of this chapter, I want to develop the implications of this argument for understanding how distance and deferral are employed as immunological tools in the governance of those seeking refuge. Externalisation, off-shoring, out-sourcing In exploring the immunitary biopolitics of contemporary refuge, we might turn first to recent work that has highlighted the use of extraterritorial spaces as tools in the interdiction of refugees (Collyer and King, 2015

in Displacement
Open Access (free)
Bridging Ethical Divides in Digital Refugee Livelihoods
Evan Easton-Calabria

. Heeks , R. ( 2017 ), ‘ Decent Work and the Digital Gig Economy: A Developing Country Perspective on Employment Impacts and Standards in Online Outsourcing, Crowdwork, etc. ’, Development Informatics Working Paper 71 , Global Development Institute, University of Manchester . Jones , P

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Intermediating the Internet Economy in Digital Livelihoods Provision for Refugees
Andreas Hackl

. The DST programme tried to incubate graduates in a shielded real-work environment as the WFP commissioned microwork internships in image annotation and data cleaning. A second attempt to organise a ‘supported virtual microwork internship programme’ with an outsourcing company failed because students would have made less than US$2 per hour. Graduates that tried to access digital platforms independently reported ‘negative experiences for a variety of reasons and

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
The Future of Work among the Forcibly Displaced
Evan Easton-Calabria
Andreas Hackl

online outsourcing sector remains a major obstacle for the role platform work can play in generating sustainable income for marginalised or vulnerable populations. As the article by Hackl (in this issue) highlights, aid organisations running digital livelihoods programmes have little capacity to reshape the largely indecent working conditions and risks that define the digital economy and refugees’ experiences within it. Unable to transform the

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Digital Skills Training and the Systematic Exclusion of Refugees in Lebanon
Rabih Shibli
Sarah Kouzi

from the Digital Economy and ICT-Related Barriers Online platform or outsourcing work outside the realms of WFP was not possible due to three interrelated factors. First, many of the prominent digital labour platforms block all IP addresses in Lebanon as a result of international sanctions against financial dealings with Syria and counterterrorism acts. The platform Figure-Eight (later absorbed by Appen), 3 which used human labour to train AI machine

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Amanda Alencar
Julia Camargo

, 600 – 16 , doi: 10.1177/1527476419857683 . Graham , M. ( 2015 ), ‘ Contradictory Connectivity: Spatial Imaginaries and Technomediated Positionalities in Kenya’s Outsourcing Sector ’, Environment and Planning A: Economy and Space , 47 : 4 , 867 – 83 , doi: 10.1068/a140275p

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Hakim Khaldi

of the PKK, created in 2003. This outsourcing was strategic: it displeased Turkey which was not only supporting the rebels, but saw the PKK as its long-standing enemy. Moreover, it allowed the Syrian government to concentrate its armed forces on other fronts. There were conditions attached to this understanding between the Syrian government and the local embodiment of the PKK (PYD/YPG). The PYD was not to provide any assistance to the Free Syrian Army (FSA) and was

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Megan Daigle
Sarah Martin
, and
Henri Myrttinen

Sex (and Other Desperate Measures) ( London : Ebury Press ). Chisholm , A. ( 2016 ), ‘ The Culture of Whiteness in Private Security ’, in C. Kinsey and J. Berndtsson (eds), Routledge Research Companion in Security Outsourcing ( London

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs