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This book is wholly devoted to assessing the array of links between Scotland and the Caribbean in the later eighteenth century. It uses a wide range of archival sources to paint a detailed picture of the lives of thousands of Scots who sought fortunes and opportunities, as Burns wrote, ‘across th' Atlantic roar’. The book outlines the range of their occupations as planters, merchants, slave owners, doctors, overseers and politicians, and shows how Caribbean connections affected Scottish society during the period of ‘improvement’. The book highlights the Scots' reinvention of the system of clanship to structure their social relations in the empire and finds that involvement in the Caribbean also bound Scots and English together in a shared Atlantic imperial enterprise and played a key role in the emergence of the British nation and the Atlantic world.

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The impact of Sturges Bourne’s reforms
Samantha A. Shave

parliamentary bills, two of which became known as the ‘Sturges Bourne Acts’ of 1818 and 1819. The 1818 Act allowed voting rights in open vestries to be weighted according to a vestryman’s property rating, whilst the Act of 1819 permitted parishes to appoint select vestries and assistant overseers, two measures designed to allow parishes to restrict relief. Notwithstanding that, as Steven King has suggested, the Acts had ‘fundamental consequences for the experience of being poor’, their adoption and impact on the provision of poor relief has been little researched and as such

in Pauper policies
Douglas J. Hamilton

the networks as vehicles for recruitment. As such they were of profound importance in the manning and maintenance of Scottish-owned plantations throughout the West Indies. The practice of employing relatives or associates from the same part of Scotland as overseers or managers was widespread throughout the later part of the century. It was done in a manner that suggests the adaptation of some traditional forms of clan

in Scotland, the Caribbean and the Atlantic world 1750–1820
Michael Mulqueen

overseers wished to hear. That this possibility exists adds credibility to this study’s claim that there are persistent policy problems even if progress has been made. In addition the 2005 act, among its other provisions, obliges the Garda commissioner to keep the minister for justice fully informed of matters related to the security and policing of the State, whenever required. The minister may, with the

in Re-evaluating Irish national security policy
Steven King

187 found resources before applying.3 Other examples abound. As early as 22 November 1777 Forncett St Peter was paying Noah Nichols ‘for carrying Wm Kerrison twice to Norwich after a truss’, while at the other end of the period, in July 1831, overseers were paying 11s for ‘Loveday’s Truss, Kemp bringing them [from Norwich]’.4 Nor did parishes just turn to Norwich; several bought steel trusses from makers in Reepham and Salhouse. There is no doubt that some purchases were driven by exogenous factors – in Lyng, for instance, discharged hospital patients seem to have

in Sickness, medical welfare and the English poor, 1750–1834
Open Access (free)
Ross M. English

This chapter studies the powers given to the President and Congress, showing that the United States Constitution ensures that every power given to the President and Congress is checked by the other government branch. It notes that Congress is the only body which can pass federal laws, and that it acts as an overseer of the executive branch. On the other hand, the President has the power to veto legislation that is passed by Congress, even if two thirds of the Senate and the House agree. The chapter also studies the concept of divided government, which has become frequent in the United States over the years.

in The United States Congress
Steven King

3 Negotiating medical welfare Introduction On an unspecified date the overseer of Pangbourne (Berkshire) received a hand-delivered letter from Olive Barber. She wrote: these lines to say that I took it very hard and unkind as you would not send us so much as a shilling yesterday as we are greatly destresed or else believe me we would not trouble you but my husband has been very ill since He came home and is legs are very bad at this time his oblidged to keep hisself as still as he can or his legs swells and are in so much pain or else he would have come to you

in Sickness, medical welfare and the English poor, 1750–1834
Steven King

problems of logistics – what to do with a dying or dead pauper who had no legal settlement in a place – and of basic law. In terms of the latter, it was not always clear that officials had the power to bury the dead. Nineteenthcentury guidance manuals for overseers differed considerably in their rendering of this matter. One handbook in multiple editions spanning the Old and New Poor Laws reminded officials that save for bodies washed ashore or otherwise abandoned ‘overseers have no power to bury the bodies of persons at the cost of the poor rate’, instead suggesting

in Sickness, medical welfare and the English poor, 1750–1834
Michael Mulqueen

This chapter outlines the profile of the frontline agencies of Irish national security and their government overseers. The Departments of Foreign Affairs and Justice operate information gathering and analytical functions that more broadly inform security policy debate and action. There is a parallel in the Swedish and Irish rationales for cooperation with neighbouring military intelligence agencies. Cooperation is a key priority for Irish, Swedish and Danish agencies but there are important differences between Irish arrangements and those operating within the Scandinavian states. Considerable inefficiencies were apparent in how the Defence Forces played out its aid to the civil power role. A key characteristic of the National Security Committee is its civilian members' reliance on their frontline agency colleagues for all operational information and analysis coming before them. Irish commitments to international cooperation do not necessarily imply a flawless or even desirable Irish intelligence apparatus.

in Re-evaluating Irish national security policy
Abstract only
Steven King

Raines felt justified in launching a scathing attack on the overseer is important for this chapter. There are also other lessons. John Scott and his wife had been simultaneously and sequentially ill since September 1832, when she was noted to be ‘hanging as it were between life & death’. Notwithstanding that, John Scott ‘was troublesome before’4 Beverley sanctioned considerable expenditure on medical care. This echoes the sense in Chapter 4 of doctors playing a more continuous role in parochial medical welfare over time. In addition to sustained attendance, the patient

in Sickness, medical welfare and the English poor, 1750–1834