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Challenges and opportunities

This book explores the evolving African security paradigm in light of the multitude of diverse threats facing the continent and the international community today and in the decades ahead. It challenges current thinking and traditional security constructs as woefully inadequate to meet the real security concerns and needs of African governments in a globalized world. The continent has becoming increasingly integrated into an international security architecture, whereby Africans are just as vulnerable to threats emanating from outside the continent as they are from home-grown ones. Thus, Africa and what happens there, matters more than ever. Through an in-depth examination and analysis of the continent’s most pressing traditional and non-traditional security challenges—from failing states and identity and resource conflict to terrorism, health, and the environment—it provides a solid intellectual foundation, as well as practical examples of the complexities of the modern African security environment. Not only does it assess current progress at the local, regional, and international level in meeting these challenges, it also explores new strategies and tools for more effectively engaging Africans and the global community through the human security approach.

Stephen Emerson and Hussein Solomon

growth of criminal activity in recent years. Even more worrisome have been the growing links between criminal and terrorist organizations in parts of West and North Africa and the serious implications this has for security.20 • Pandemic disease. Once simply categorized as health and quality of life issues, deadly pandemic diseases, such as HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis, have come to the forefront of the non-traditional, transnational security challenges facing African countries today. SubSaharan Africa is the most severely affected HIV/AIDS region of the world

in African security in the twenty-first century
Abstract only
François-Olivier Touati
Elma Brenner

Elma Brenner is grateful to Helen D. Donoghue for discussing aDNA research with her and suggesting recent publications in the field to consult. aDNA research has also shed much light on the global reach, transmission and impact of the bacterium responsible for the Black Death, Yersinia pestis : see M. H. Green , ‘ Taking “pandemic” seriously: Making the Black Death global ’, in M. H. Green (ed.), Pandemic Disease in the Medieval World: Rethinking the Black Death ( Kalamazoo : Arc Medieval Press , 2015 ), pp. 27–61 , and other chapters in Green, Pandemic

in Leprosy and identity in the Middle Ages
Space, identity and power

This volume aims to disclose the political, social and cultural factors that influenced the sanitary measures against epidemics developed in the Mediterranean during the long nineteenth century. The contributions to the book provide new interdisciplinary insights to the booming field of ‘quarantine studies’ through a systematic use of the analytic categories of space, identity and power. The ultimate goal is to show the multidimensional nature of quarantine, the intimate links that sanitary administrations and institutions had with the territorial organization of states, international trade, the construction of national, colonial, religious and professional identities or the configuration of political regimes. The circum-Mediterranean geographical spread of the case studies contained in this volume illuminates the similarities and differences around and across this sea, on the southern and northern shores, in Arabic, Spanish, Portuguese, Greek, Italian, English and French-speaking domains. At the same time, it is highly interested in engaging in the global English-speaking community, offering a wide range of terms, sources, bibliography, interpretative tools and views produced and elaborated in various Mediterranean countries. The historical approach will be useful to recognize the secular tensions that still lie behind present-day issues such as the return of epidemics or the global flows of migrants and refugees.

Stephen Emerson and Hussein Solomon

-traditional African security concerns in global forums, including trafficking in people, drugs, and small arms, as well as the threat of environmental degradation and the spread of pandemic disease. It is in the area of enhancing health security, for example, that New Delhi is quietly upping its engagement on the continent. Reportedly, several African governments are seeking Indian assistance in improving healthcare delivery and the supply of affordable medicines to their citizens.70 Making greater use of technology and Indian tertiary delivery methods, along with a massive

in African security in the twenty-first century
Stephen Emerson and Hussein Solomon

in Africa will likely result. Although the challenges from combating terrorism and the trafficking in drugs, people, and small arms to tackling pandemic disease, improving health care, and countering environmental degradation are enormous, so too are opportunities for making a real difference in advancing human security. Even small advancements in disease prevention, child nutrition, and health care delivery, for example, would improve the well-being of many of the poorest individuals and communities across the continent. Without freedom from want in meeting the

in African security in the twenty-first century
Peter Lachmann

in North Africa during the Second World War which, greatly exaggerated, forms the subject of Camus’s novel La Peste (Camus 1947). However, Yersinia pestis is sensitive to antibiotics and this has caused plague largely to die out, although the emergence of antibioticresistant plague bacteria is now giving rise to concern. Most other major plagues that we know of have been caused by viruses rather than bacteria. The most devastating of these in human history has been smallpox. However, it is so far the only human pandemic disease to have been eradicated from the

in The freedom of scientific research
Outbreak anxieties in the United States from the colonies to COVID-19
Amy Lauren Fairchild, Constance A. Nathanson, and Cullen Conway

pandemic disaster. In the context of the 2014–2015 Ebola crisis, for example, panic over a handful of US cases led to unwarranted policy solutions that many argued exacerbated the outbreaks on the ground in West African nations. Leading science pundits argue that we aren’t panicking enough when it comes to pandemic disease. 105 Signalling that there is no end to potential infectious panics, the World Health Organization adopted the term ‘Disease X’ to designate the next pandemic. This chapter was originally drafted in 2018, well before what would become the global

in Medicalising borders
Stephen Emerson and Hussein Solomon

proliferation, drug trafficking, the spread of pandemic disease, and dealing with environmental degradation, demand holistic solutions that fundamentally require broad-based societal participation and support. Activists, civil society groups, domestic NGOs, and local leaders are all part of the equation, and many are at the cutting edge of new approaches. Although focused primarily on seeking ways to enhance individual and community security, the nature of many of these challenges often lends itself to the development of broader, cross-cutting solutions to national and

in African security in the twenty-first century
Abstract only
Connections between East and West in the Middle Ages
François-Olivier Touati

, 2000 ). 3 T. S. Miller and J. W. Nesbitt , Walking Corpses: Leprosy in Byzantium and the Medieval Wes t ( Ithaca, NY : Cornell University Press , 2014 ), makes no connection or comparison between East and West, limiting itself to a juxtaposition of the two situations. 4 For plague see, in particular, M. H. Green (ed.), Pandemic Disease in the Medieval World: Rethinking the Black Death ( Kalamazoo : Arc Medieval Press , 2015 ); F.-O. Touati , ‘ La peste comme modèle ’, Sources: travaux historiques , 22 ( 1990

in Leprosy and identity in the Middle Ages