A LTHOUGH there is considerable evidence that standards in religious life and the reform of the Church in general were animating individual ecclesiastical officials and secular rulers from as early as the later tenth century, what galvanized these initiatives and extended reform objectives in the eleventh century was the Roman papacy. Many elements and individuals contributed to the emergence of the papacy as the indisputable leader of the Church – and in many ways leader also of the Latin West – during the course of the eleventh century. Although, as will
domination. Although initiated by monks in the ecclesiastical provinces of France – and supported regionally by Frankish bishops, kings, and magnates – exemptions became increasingly mobilised as powerful social, political, and legal mechanisms of medieval papal governance. This so-called ‘victory of the papacy’ resulted when ‘a host of monasteries secured from the Curia a charter of protection and a number of liberties, which, though usually falling short of complete independence at home, had their effect in bringing to the cognisance of the papacy the affairs of almost
saint because of the halo over his head and unmistakably a Dominican tertiary because of the habit he wears, is a highly polemical campaign poster on behalf of Alberto’s canonisation. Painted in Lombardy in the late seventeenth century, it is in the church of Saint-Matteo-and-the-Sacred-Heart, Villa d’Ogna.
Meanwhile, the same early modern centuries brought important changes to the canonisation process. 3 Back when the papacy began attempting to take control of canonisation at the close of the late twelfth century
came only in 1166, when Alexander III, then in dire need of
Sicilian support against the hostile German Emperor
Frederick Barbarossa, sanctioned the creation of the
province of Messina, shorn of Catania, which was made directly
dependent on the papacy.] 11
Anacletus, bishop, servant of the
servants of God, to his venerable brother Bishop Hugh of Messina and his
The attempt to both define and understand reform in the later tenth and eleventh centuries is the chief ambition of this book. The book explores ecclesiastical reform as a religious idea and a movement against the backdrop of social and religious change in later tenth- and eleventh-century Europe. In so doing, it seeks, on the one hand, to place the relationship between reform and the papacy in the context of the debate about 'transformation' in its many and varied forms. At the same time, although recognizing that the reform movement had its origins as much in individuals and events far away from Rome and royal courts, it has looked to act as something of a corrective to the recent tendency among historians of emphasizing reform developments in other localities at the expense of those being undertaken in Rome. The book addresses 'the religious revolution of the eleventh century' by exploring how reform and the papacy developed in the eleventh century, and how these changes affected the rules by which medieval society functioned. Particular attention is paid to the question of whether the 'peace of God' movement was a social revolution that progressively blurred into and merged with the papal-sponsored movement for reform, which was gathering pace from the middle of the century, or whether these forces were deliberately compacted by the reformers in their efforts to promote their vision for Christian society.
Although the reputation of Englands first queen regnant, Mary Tudor (died 1558)
had remained substantially unchanged in the intervening centuries, there were
always some defenders of that Catholic queen among the historians of Victorian
England. It is worth noting, however, that such revisionism made little if any
impact on the schoolroom history textbooks, where Marys reputation remained much
as John Foxe had defined it. Such anxiety as there was about attempts to restore
something of Marys reputation were made more problematic by the increasing
number and increasingly visible presence of a comprehensive Catholic hierarchy
in the nineteenth century, and by high-profile converts to the Catholic faith
and papal authority. The pre-eminent historians of the later Victorian era
consistently remained more favourable to the reign of Elizabeth, seen as the
destroyer,of an effective Catholic church in England.
This book examines the history of monastic exemption in France. It maps an
institutional story of monastic freedom and protection, which is deeply rooted
in the religious, political, social, and legal culture of the early Middle Ages.
Traversing many geo-political boundaries and fields of historical
specialisation, this book evaluates the nature and extent of papal involvement
in French monasteries between the sixth and eleventh centuries. Defining the
meaning and value of exemption to medieval contemporaries during this era, it
demonstrates how the papacy’s commitment, cooperation, and intervention
transformed existing ecclesiastical and political structures. Charting the
elaboration of monastic exemption privileges from a marginalised to centralised
practice, this book asks why so many French monasteries were seeking exemption
privileges directly from Rome; what significance they held for monks, bishops,
secular rulers, and popes; how and why this practice developed throughout the
early Middle Ages; and, ultimately, what impact monastic exemption had on the
emerging identity of papal authority, the growth of early monasticism, Frankish
politics and governance, church reform, and canon law.
This collection honours and reflects the pioneering scholarship of Graham A. Loud in the field of Norman Italy (southern Italy and Sicily c. 1000–c. 1200). An international group of scholars, edited by Joanna H. Drell and Paul Oldfield, addresses a diverse range of subjects, reassessing and recasting the paradigm by which Norman Italy has been conventionally understood. Norman Italy’s uniqueness has long rested on its geographic location on Latin Europe’s periphery, a circumstance that intermixed Latin Christians with Byzantine Greeks and Muslims and fostered a vibrant multiculturalism. While elements of this characterisation remain valid, continuing scholarly exploration is sparking a rising awareness of cross-pollination between Norman Italy and the wider medieval world in the eleventh and twelfth centuries. The collection’s studies underscore that Norman Italy was not just a parochial Norman or Mediterranean entity but also an integral player in the medieval mainstream. This volume consequently endeavours to move the field’s emphasis beyond the frontier and to articulate both Norman Italy’s contribution to broader historical currents and the impact in turn of these currents upon Norman Italy, an instance of reciprocal influence perhaps surpassing the sum of its parts. This focus leads the volume’s scholars to explore many broader realms within which Norman Italy was integrated, including the secular and monastic church, aristocratic networks, the papacy, crusading, urbanisation, Byzantium and Islam.