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Spirituality and social change

The attempt to both define and understand reform in the later tenth and eleventh centuries is the chief ambition of this book. The book explores ecclesiastical reform as a religious idea and a movement against the backdrop of social and religious change in later tenth- and eleventh-century Europe. In so doing, it seeks, on the one hand, to place the relationship between reform and the papacy in the context of the debate about 'transformation' in its many and varied forms. At the same time, although recognizing that the reform movement had its origins as much in individuals and events far away from Rome and royal courts, it has looked to act as something of a corrective to the recent tendency among historians of emphasizing reform developments in other localities at the expense of those being undertaken in Rome. The book addresses 'the religious revolution of the eleventh century' by exploring how reform and the papacy developed in the eleventh century, and how these changes affected the rules by which medieval society functioned. Particular attention is paid to the question of whether the 'peace of God' movement was a social revolution that progressively blurred into and merged with the papal-sponsored movement for reform, which was gathering pace from the middle of the century, or whether these forces were deliberately compacted by the reformers in their efforts to promote their vision for Christian society.

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Kathleen G. Cushing

religion, and the beginnings of localized reform initiatives. Chapter 2 focuses on the issue of how we are to understand reform in the eleventh century, its implications and the past historiography of the subject. Chapter 3 looks at the late tenth- and earlier eleventh-century movement known as the ‘peace of God’, a movement that has often been characterized as a precursor to the papal-sponsored movement that developed strength especially after 1049, but whose intrinsic reformist nature has to date perhaps been insufficiently emphasized. Chapter 4 focuses on the Roman

in Reform and papacy in the eleventh century