Paradoxes of Internationalization deals with British and German trade union responses to the internationalization of corporate structures and strategies at Ford and General Motors between the late 1960s and the early twenty-first century. Based on research in more than a dozen archives in Britain, Germany and the United States, the book is unique in its attempt to bridge historical and contemporary approaches to the study of trade union politics in multinational firms. Conceptually, Paradoxes of Internationalization draws not only on the mainstream industrial relations literature but also on scholarship in comparative and international political economy, transnational history and nationalism studies. The book points to the paradoxical effects of internationalization processes. First, it demonstrates how internationalization reinforced trade unions’ national identities and allegiances. Second, the book highlights that internationalization made domestic trade union practices more similar in some respects, while it simultaneously contributed to the re-creation of diversity between and within the two countries. Third, the book shows that investment competition was paradoxically the most important precondition for the emergence of cross-border cooperation initiatives although the interest-driven nature of these initiatives also limited their scope.
nationalist rhetoric are assumed to be context specific and changing. It is further assumed
that these appropriations reflect engrained, taken-for-granted ‘ideological
habits’ (Billig, 1995 : 6), but also, to different
degrees, more instrumental strategies to legitimize specific trade union
interests. The chapter’s main argument is that internationalization –
as exemplified in the cases of Ford and General Motors – can paradoxically
reinforce rather than diminish
cooperation initiatives. Even
the most successful EWCs, in Kotthoff’s words, ‘do not have a strong
European identity . . . in the sense of strong affective bonds and collective
feelings’ (2007: 174).
Building on these insights and my own earlier work (Fetzer, 2008 , 2010b ), the chapter will
argue that trade union cross-border cooperation in multinational firms from the
late 1960s is best conceptualized as a paradox – the driving forces behind
, 2005 : 22–9). Such changes often go beyond the mere adaptive
reproduction of existing patterns, while, at the same time, they are
country-specific rather than uniform (Thelen, 2009 ).
The implication of these insights for the study of
internationalization processes is that we are again dealing with a paradox, namely
that internationalization is likely to make industrial relations practices more
similar across borders in some respects, while it simultaneously
Across the early decades of the seventeenth century, Englishmen and women moved through a physical, social, and mental world organised into a carefully maintained balance of motion and pause. This book examines how seventeenth-century English architectural theorists and designers rethought the domestic built environment in terms of mobility, as motion became a dominant mode of articulating the world across discourses. These discourses encompassed philosophy, political theory, poetry, and geography. From mid-century, the house and estate that had evoked staccato rhythms became triggers for mental and physical motion-evoking travel beyond England's shores, displaying vistas, and showcasing changeable wall surfaces. The book sets in its cultural context a strand of historical analysis stretching back to the nineteenth century Heinrich Wolfflin. It brings together the art, architectural, and cultural historical strands of analysis by examining why seventeenth-century viewers expected to be put in motion and what the effects were of that motion. Vistas, potentially mobile wall surface, and changeable garden provided precisely the essential distraction that rearticulated social divisions and assured the ideal harmony. Alternately feared and praised early in the century for its unsettling unpredictability, motion became the most certain way of comprehending social interactions, language, time, and the buildings that filtered human experience. At the heart of this book is the malleable sensory viewer, tacitly assumed in early modern architectural theory and history whose inescapable responsiveness to surrounding stimuli guaranteed a dependable world from the seventeenth century.
The parables of the Wedding Feast and Great Supper
Paradox formed into story
Paradox formed into story:
the parables of the Wedding Feast
and Great Supper
Thus comparisunez Kryst þe kyndom of heuen
To þis frelych feste þat fele arn to called;
For alle arn laþed luflyly, þe luþer and þe better,
Þat euer wern fulȝed in font, þat fest to haue. (Cleanness, 161–4)1
This final chapter returns to the parable of the Wedding Feast
(Matt 22:1–14), a story fraught with contradictions, both within
the narrative itself and in its relation to other Gospel stories.
The Wedding Feast is a paradigmatic parable: it is
grandiosity of law in the ruins
Duncan Kennedy on Rudolf
I Conflicts of laws under suspicion of
Twenty-five years ago, when the
great paradoxologists of our times were still quite differently engaged
community – who emphasize the simultaneity of seemingly contradictory
developments, that is, the paradoxes of internationalization (see for
example: Sorge, 2005 ).
Arguments and structure of the book
The book deals with three such paradoxes of internationalization in
the case of British and German trade union politics at Ford and General Motors.
First, I argue that internationalization reinforced rather than weakened national
). The book has taken issue with the tendency for
polar juxtapositions in the industrial relations literature on
internationalization – whether between ‘convergence’ and
‘path dependence’, or between ‘solidarity’ and
‘competition’. Throughout the analysis, the book has emphasized the
multifaceted and context-dependent nature of inter-nationalization’s
challenges – and the paradoxical effects this entailed for British and
German trade union
The ‘paradox’ of anarchism
In 1933, the anarcho-pacifist Romanian intellectual Eugen Relgis explored
the conundrum of humanitarianism as applied to eugenics in the Valenciabased anarchist cultural review Estudios.1 Could there be, the author asked,
a community of interests or any compatibility between the philosophical
and ethical concept of humanitarianism and the new science of eugenics?
Relgis, active in the anti-war movement and a supporter of the Spanish
Republic, certainly thought so. Nevertheless, his attempt to articulate a