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Editor: Grant Tapsell

The later Stuart church inherited many of the problems that had been faced by its antecedents at institutional, social, and intellectual levels, but was also rocked by several new and profound challenges. It is important, therefore, to locate the established church within a long-term framework of gradual developments and sharp disjunctures. This book offers an account of how clerics and laymen experienced the events of the period between the Restoration of the monarchy in 1660 and the Hanoverian succession of 1714. Politics and religion under the later Stuarts were powerfully intermingled, rather than sharply differentiated categories. Some clerics exercised considerable secular power, whilst many laymen dictated the terms of the church's position at local and national levels. Indeed it could hardly have been otherwise when religious beliefs were made into a shibboleth for holding public office and clerics expounded political maxims from pulpits across the land. Having sketched in the basic framework of relevant events in the later Stuart period, and their historical and geographical contexts, it remains to conclude by drawing them together. Three themes emerge as paramount because of their capacity to ignite contemporary discussion in the light of past experience. These include: the conflicting sources of authority for the Church of England, the relations between clergy and laymen, and the question of how successfully the church exercised its pastoral function.

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The later Stuart church in context
Grant Tapsell

past experience: the conflicting sources of authority for the Church of England; the relations between clergy and laymen; and the question of how successfully the church exercised its pastoral function. The king could be described as ‘ye Attlas of our Ch[urch]’, but in practice he could prove to be more like a sapper laying mines beneath its ramparts. 66 Charles II’s efforts to enforce liberty of

in The later Stuart Church, 1660–1714
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Carmen M. Mangion

of Associations’, French Historical Studies, 23 (2000), 103–28. 10 Decree on the Adaptation and Renewal of Religious Life, Ferfectae caritatis (28 October 1965), www.vatican.va/archive/hist_councils/ii_vatican_council/ [accessed 29 August 2006]. The Pontifical Commission for the Cultural Heritage of the Church issued The Pastoral Function of Church Archives on 2 February 1997, which emphasised that the creation and maintenance of church archives was imperative for congregations, orders and dioceses. 11 Lawrence Stone, The Past and the Present Revisited (London

in Contested identities
Suzanne Conklin Akbari

. While other nobles lead delegations of knights and soldiers, Turpin gathers around himself an army of priests; he has permission from the pope, says Turpin, to let them fight ‘Bothe with schelde and spere’ (619). Turpin seeks and receives permission to lead the vanguard, ‘Assemble[d] undire my banere’ (924). Turpin expresses his pastoral function in conventional terms, offering the sacrifice of the Mass on behalf of the disheartened troops (881–910), but he also acts as a rather aggressive shepherd in urging the troops to action. He does not hesitate to apply the

in Pulp fictions of medieval England
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Gervase Rosser

middle and late Saxon period were the new, strategically situated churches known as minsters. The material needs and pastoral functions of the small communities of minster priests, often established in the first instance by royal and aristocratic patrons, have been shown to have brought into being an extensive network of new marketplaces and centres of population, required in the first instance to

in Towns in medieval England
Aaron S. Allen

opening – but the oboe is absent, and the only response is from four timpani who rumble like thunder. The shepherdess (oboe) has abandoned her loving shepherd (English horn). At the opening of Berlioz’s pastoral movement, the echo – which Marx (1964) calls a ‘recurrent device in pastoral’ – functions as a ‘metaphor of reciprocity’: the shepherd calls out to the woods, from which he hears the same ‘notes of his pipe’ respond and ‘echo back’ (23). But the reciprocal love of the outset is altered; both Berlioz’s ‘In the Fields’ and the Fantastic as a whole are complex

in Extending ecocriticism
Alison Forrestal

of the parish clergy to administer confession to parishioners during Easter and on their deathbeds, Bishop Arnauld issued a series of ordinances to curtail their sacramental privileges.121 When the mendicants fiercely rejected these prohibitions, Bonichon produced his treatises vindicating Arnauld’s protection of his curés, but still managed to slip into them a pithy justification of the curés’ jurisdictional droit divin. First, he declared that regulars were subject to bishops when they performed their pastoral functions; bishops had, consequently, to approve

in Fathers, pastors and kings
The Church
Philippa Byrne

the need to instruct priests in the subtleties and practicalities of penance in turn, therefore, gave rise to the genre of summa de poenitentia (or summa confessorum ) – effectively guides to confessional judgment. These were typically aimed at clerics who had attended cathedral schools or received monastic education in theology, and were expected, once their studies were completed, to take up Church positions with pastoral functions. 14 This was a task which became more demanding as the canon law tradition became increasingly complex. Thus Odo of Cheriton

in Justice and mercy
David J. Appleby

it pertaining to the times’, when the minister had commented on the crisis within the Church of England.8 The listener’s attention span, to which Newcomen had referred so humorously in his valediction of 19 August, had a serious subtext: memory was a factor in public circulation.9 Sermon repetition and catechism had always been invaluable in spreading the Word. Robert Porter noted that his friend John Hieron had always been active in teaching in every home he could.10 In normal times, as part of their pastoral function ministers had catechised children whilst the

in Black Bartholomew’s Day
Jack Saunders

representatives, the Management Advisory Committee [MAC], consisting of twenty delegates elected by secret ballot once every three years. According to Jack West, a foreman: Every month they had a meeting. ‘What’s the trouble?’ ‘Not enough sugar in the tea,’ or any little thing was bought up and thrashed out. And that was it, there was no messing about then. And of course he was trouble free of strikes, because everything was … scotched off beforehand.185 The MAC took on many of the ‘pastoralfunctions which were the responsibility of shop stewards in other plants – it ironed

in Assembling cultures