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Culture and memory after the Armistice
Editors: Trudi Tate and Kate Kennedy

This book revisits the end of the First World War to ask how that moment of silence was to echo into the following decades. It looks at the history from a different angle, asking how British and German creative artists addressed, questioned and remembered the Armistice and its silence. The book offers a genuinely interdisciplinary study, bringing together contributions from scholars in art history, music, literature and military history. It is unique in its comparison of the creative arts of both sides; assessing responses to the war in Britain, Germany and Austria. Together, the different chapters offer a rich diversity of methodological approaches, including archival research, historical analysis, literary and art criticism, musical analysis and memory studies. The chapters reconsider some well-known writers and artists to offer fresh readings of their works. These sit alongside a wealth of lesser-known material, such as the popular fiction of Philip Gibbs and Warwick Deeping and the music of classical composer Arthur Bliss. The wide-ranging discussions encompass such diverse subjects as infant care, sculpture, returned nurses, war cemeteries, Jewish identity, literary journals, soldiers' diaries and many other topics. Together they provide a new depth to our understanding of the cultural effects of the war and the Armistice. Finally, the book has a recuperative impulse, bringing to light rare and neglected materials, such as the letters of ordinary German and British soldiers, and Alfred Doblin's Armistice novel.

Jeremy Pressman

casualties in 1973 and needed a massive US airlift of military supplies in the midst of the war. Its intelligence apparatus had failed, and the Israeli economy was hard-hit. 68 Sword.indb 68 25/03/2020 15:11:01 Peace cannot be forced Though military force and the resultant human losses and economic costs played an important role in changing Egyptian and Israeli calculations, that alone was not enough to produce a peace treaty six years after the 1973 war. The wars led to a phase of non-belligerency – the absence of war – not a state of cold or warm peace. The move from

in The sword is not enough
Romain Fathi, Margaret Hutchison, Andrekos Varnava, and Michael J. K. Walsh

The war had shaken the world's foundations and its ending created unforeseen challenges, hopes and despair at the same time. Elgar's concerto is an artwork that metaphorically encapsulates the moment of imperial transition from war to peace, the subject of this book. This book explores the particular ‘1918–20 moment’ in the British Empire's history, between the First World War's armistices of 1918, and the peace treaties of 1919 and 1920. This moment was a challenging and transformative time for the Empire. While British authorities successfully

in Exiting war
Duncan Morrow

Treaty of Versailles, when it became clear that democracy was not a simple matter of transferring powers from imperial tyrants to oppressed peoples, but also of choosing which people should prevail in mixed territories. The politics of majorities and borders became the dominant politics of the day and, instead of a new stability, the peace treaties sowed the seeds of the next war in national

in Everyday life after the Irish conflict
Coleman A. Dennehy

bishops in the mid-­1640s, politically reliable if somewhat Calvinist in their theology, would encourage a compliant Lords, one where the bishops could hold a working majority. The Commons represented considerably larger problems. As Bríd McGrath shows in Chapter 6, the Commons held a series of by-­elections to replace the secluded members who had deserted for the confederate camp or indeed were expelled due to the failure to take the oath. Should legislation necessitated by either peace treaty been put forward it may have seen some opposition in the lower house. Had

in Ireland in crisis
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Refugees in Russia, 1914-18
Irina Belova

the past.57 Brest-Litovsk and refugee resettlement from Soviet Russia After signing the Brest-Litovsk peace treaty in March 1918 the Soviet government was obliged to prepare for the re-evacuation of prisoners of war and refugees on its territory. Many refugees soon started to return home. This was no great surprise. The People’s Commissariat of Internal Affairs announced that state allowances paid to refugees would come to an end. Since most refugees in the countryside were unable to obtain farm tools and seeds, this was devastating news. The main reason was

in Europe on the move
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Alan Rosenthal

Israeli foreign minister and noted world statesman, asked me if I wanted to work with him on a film for 13/WNET New York, about the Oslo Peace process, and subsequent events leading up to an rapprochement with the PLO and a peace treaty with Jordan. Do Americans like baseball? Do the English like cricket? What a question. I’d have given my right hand to make such a film. According to Eban, he’d been discussing the film for some months with Bill Baker, head of 13/WNET, and Baker thought it was a great idea to present Eban’s personal views on the situation. My name had

in The documentary diaries
Author: Jacopo Pili

Anglophobia in Fascist Italy traces the roots of Fascist Anglophobia from the Great War and through the subsequent peace treaties and its development during the twenty years of Mussolini’s regime. Initially, Britain was seen by many Italians as a ‘false friend’ who was also the main obstacle to Italy’s foreign policy aspirations, a view embraced by Mussolini and his movement. While at times dormant, this Anglophobic sentiment did not disappear in the years that followed, and was later rekindled during the Ethiopian War. The peculiarly Fascist contribution to the assessment of Britain was ideological. From the mid-1920s, the regime’s intellectuals saw Fascism as the answer to a crisis in the Western world and as irredeemably opposed to Western civilisation of the sort exemplified by Britain. Britain was described as having failed the ‘problem of labour’, and Fascism framed as a salvation ideology, which nations would either embrace or face decay. The perception of Britain as a decaying and feeble nation increased after the Great Depression. The consequence of this was a consistent underrating of British power and resolve to resist Italian ambitions. An analysis of popular reception of the Fascist discourse shows that the tendency to underrate Britain had permeated large sectors of the Italian people, and that public opinion was more hostile to Britain than previously thought. Indeed, in some quarters hatred towards the British lasted until the end of the Second World War, in both occupied and liberated Italy.

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The British Empire and the 1918–20 moment

This book explores a particular 1918–20 ‘moment’ in the British Empire’s history, between the First World War’s armistices of 1918, and the peace treaties of 1919 and 1920. That moment, we argue, was a challenging and transformative time for the Empire. While British authorities successfully answered some of the post-war tests they faced, such as demobilisation, repatriation and fighting the widespread effects of the Spanish flu, the racial, social, political and economic hallmarks of their imperialism set the scene for a wide range of expressions of loyalties and disloyalties, and anticolonial movements. The book documents and conceptualises this 1918–20 ‘moment’ and its characteristics as a crucial three-year period of transformation for and within the Empire, examining these years for the significant shifts in the imperial relationship that occurred, and as laying the foundation for later change in the imperial system.

Science, technology and culture in Birmingham and the West Midlands, 1760–1820
Author: Peter M. Jones

This book sets out to explain how - in a particular provincial context - the widespread public consumption of science underpinned a very considerable expansion of know-how or technological capability. In other words, it explains how conditions conducive to 'Industrial Enlightenment' came into being. Industrial Enlightenment appears to fit best as a characterisation of what was taking place in eighteenth-century Britain. Diffusing knowledge among savants was not at all the same as embedding it in technological or industrial processes. In the matter of application as opposed to dissemination, Europe's science cultures are revealed as very far from being evenly permeable, or receptive. The book explores whether the religious complexion of Birmingham and the West Midlands, and more especially the strength of protestant Nonconformity, might explain the precocious development of conditions favourable to Industrial Enlightenment across the region. It also focuses on the international ramifications of the knowledge economy, and the very serious dislocation that it suffered at the century's end as a consequence of the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars. Whilst these late-century interruptions to the free flow of knowledge and technical know-how served mainly to thrust English provincial science in an ever more utilitarian direction, they signally retarded developments on the Continent. As a result, overseas visitors arriving in Birmingham and Soho after the signing of the peace treaties of 1814-15 were dismayed to discover that they faced a very considerable knowledge and know-how deficit.