Author: Chen Kertcher

This book offers a brief review of United Nations (UN) peacekeeping operations from 1947 to 2014. It examines international politics at the United Nations from 1988 to 1991 when the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) dissolved. The book offers new explanations for the dwindling support for UN peacekeeping operations from late 1993 to 1995. It examines the diplomatic discussions at the Security Council, the General Assembly and the UN Secretariat on the objectives and principles of success of the operations from January 1992 to mid-1993. It is accepted by researchers and even the UN Secretariat that peacekeeping operations can be divided into two separate time periods: from 1947-88, or the Cold War era, and from 1988 to the present, the post-Cold War era. The book further explains what occurred in the UN during 1995 that called for a re-examination of the new concept and practice of peacekeeping in civil wars. It shows how the international community succeeded in providing only part of the requirements for the many operations, and especially for the large multidimensional operations in Cambodia, the former Yugoslavia and Somalia. Finally, the book emphasises the importance of regional organisations with regard to the maintenance of international peace and security.

Author: Eşref Aksu

This study explores the normative dimension of the evolving role of the United Nations in peace and security and, ultimately, in governance. What is dealt with here is both the UN's changing raison d'être and the wider normative context within which the organisation is located. The study looks at the UN through the window of one of its most contentious, yet least understood, practices: active involvement in intra-state conflicts as epitomised by UN peacekeeping. Drawing on the conceptual tools provided by the ‘historical structural’ approach, it seeks to understand how and why the international community continuously reinterprets or redefines the UN's role with regard to such conflicts. The study concentrates on intra-state ‘peacekeeping environments’, and examines what changes, if any, have occurred to the normative basis of UN peacekeeping in intra-state conflicts from the early 1960s to the early 1990s. One of the original aspects of the study is its analytical framework, where the conceptualisation of ‘normative basis’ revolves around objectives, functions and authority, and is closely connected with the institutionalised values in the UN Charter such as state sovereignty, human rights and socio-economic development.

Chen Kertcher

1 A history of UN peacekeeping The history of UN peacekeeping is intertwined with the evolution of the concept and practice of these operations. In this research study, the term ‘concept’, in the context of peacekeeping operations, refers to agreed-upon UN principles regarding the objectives, principles for success, and managerial and organisational aspects of the operations. The term ‘practice’, on the other hand, refers to the actual implementation of the operations and the political conduct of the states with regard to those conflicts where the decision is

in The United Nations and peacekeeping, 1988–95
Chen Kertcher

3 Agenda for peacekeeping 1992–93 The positive momentum for execution of peacekeeping operations continued between 1992 and 1993. In 1992, the Security Council resolved to execute four new operations in the former Yugoslavia, Mozambique, Somalia and Cambodia. In 1993, the Council decided to intervene in four new sites: in Georgia (FSU), Haiti, Liberia and Rwanda. Intensive activity took place in the UN despite the lack of clarity regarding the effectiveness of implementation of the traditional operations with regard to intrastate conflicts. That was one of the

in The United Nations and peacekeeping, 1988–95
The analytical framework
Eşref Aksu

actor in its own right, the UN is a unique entity mirroring (but also influencing) the political and normative processes in the entire international community. This study focuses on the expectations which relevant actors have of the UN in relation to intra-state conflicts as can be discerned by examining peacekeeping environments. 19 The ‘UN’ is used in this study to refer to any

in The United Nations, intra-state peacekeeping and normative change
Evolution of the normative basis
Eşref Aksu

T HE CHANGING MACROPOLITICAL landscape brought in its wake both continuities and discontinuities in the normative basis of intra-state peacekeeping, which we will closely examine in the context of four detailed case studies. Each case study in the following chapters will of necessity be handled in its ‘own’ time, in seemingly static fashion. This chapter will

in The United Nations, intra-state peacekeeping and normative change
Chen Kertcher

4 The failure of peacekeeping as a panacea to civil wars 1993–95 Ostensibly, it would seem that, during the first half of 1993, the UN had succeeded in dealing effectively with all the ‘new threats’ to international peace and security in the form of intrastate conflicts, by the implementation of multidimensional peacekeeping operations when needed. The operations were viewed as the ideal means for terminating conflicts and establishing peace. However, the truth was that the UN resolutions to execute the operations in their new format were unanimous only in

in The United Nations and peacekeeping, 1988–95
Abstract only
Chen Kertcher

Introduction Between the late 1980s and the early 1990s, there was a major shift in the position of the United Nations in the world. After the organisation had been shunted aside for most of the Cold War years, it returned to enjoy international centre stage; the large, multifunctional peacekeeping operations were catalysts in this process. The organisation’s member states mobilised themselves to promote those initiatives that encouraged both political arrangements and other political, economic and security measures – such as humanitarian aid, resettlement of

in The United Nations and peacekeeping, 1988–95
Abstract only
UN peacekeeping and the end of the Cold War 1988–91
Chen Kertcher

2 New thinking: UN peacekeeping and the end of the Cold War 1988–91 It is accepted by researchers and even the UN Secretariat that peacekeeping operations can be divided into two separate time periods: from 1947–88, or the Cold War era, and from 1988 to the present, the post-Cold War era. In 1988–91, the UN carried out ten new peacekeeping operations:  in Afghanistan, on the Iran–Iraq border, in Central America, Africa and Cambodia. We can also note the enforcement operation in Iraq after Iraq conquered Kuwait. But although most studies label these as second

in The United Nations and peacekeeping, 1988–95
Abstract only
Chen Kertcher

, international politics on UN peacekeeping has been in permanent tension between two political trends. The first political trend supports most variants of peacekeeping operations under certain conditions in order to prevent, contain and terminate intrastate conflicts. On the other hand, member states continue to guide their policies in discussions on the goals, principles, organisational reform and the practice of the operations according to their national interests. This tension explains why UN member states supported the changes in peacekeeping operations while at the same

in The United Nations and peacekeeping, 1988–95