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Thomas Vaisset

On 25 September 1911 the battleship Liberté exploded in Toulon harbour. This tragedy is just one of the many disasters that the French fleet suffered at the end of the nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth centuries and also represents the peak of these calamities, since it is undoubtedly the most deadly suffered by a French Navy ship in peacetime. The aim of this article is to study how the navy managed this disaster and the resulting deaths of service personnel, which were all the more traumatic because the incident happened in France’s main military port and in circumstances that do not match the traditional forms of death at sea.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Neoliberal crisis, neoliberal solutions

Once held up as a 'poster child' for untrammeled capitalist globalisation, the Irish Republic has more recently come to represent a cautionary tale for those tempted to tread the same neoliberal path. The crash in the world economy had especially grave repercussions for Ireland, and a series of austerity measures has seen the country endure the most substantial 'adjustment' ever experienced in a developed society during peacetime. This book delineates the reactionary course that Ireland has followed since the ignominious demise of the Celtic Tiger. It argues that the forces of neoliberalism have employed the economic crisis they caused to advance policies that are in their own narrow interests, and that the host of regressive measures imposed since the onset of global recession has fundamentally restructured Irish society. The book discusses the mechanisms by which finance in Ireland sustains and reproduces itself, in particular how it was able to protect itself during the 2008 crisis. Property was at the centre of the second phase of the Celtic Tiger boom after US investment in manufacturing began to decline, leading to the Irish economic crash. The years since the onset of the recession in Ireland in 2008 have been characterised not by passivity and quietism but by extreme violence. In December 2009 as part of the first wave of austerity, the Community Development Project was informed that the Department of Community, Rural and Gaeltacht Affairs proposed not to continue funding the project beyond the end of 2009.

The First World War and the expansion of the Canadian Red Cross Society’s humanitarian vision
Sarah Glassford

When the Canadian Red Cross Society (CRCS) was created in 1896 as the first colonial branch of the British Red Cross Society, it held closely to the Red Cross Movement’s founding vision of inactivity in peacetime. While other national Red Cross societies used peacetime, at a minimum, to prepare for war, the Canadian Society did not, and, as a result, failed to gain any lasting traction in its first decade-and-a-half of existence. After this unpromising beginning, the First World War transformed the Society beyond all expectation into a nation-wide patriotic and

in The Red Cross Movement
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Railways and the preparation for war, 1914
Edward M. Spiers

commission established to investigate the conduct of the war, lessons should be learned from the war, and a substantial railway staff should be created in peacetime. An intermediary staff, he affirmed, should be organized and trained in peacetime, charged with collating railway information, preparing manuals, organizing an imperial corps, all the details of home defence and the transport of forces in peacetime. In addition Girouard

in Engines for empire
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War without limits
Adam Page

followed that interventions in the spatial organisation of cities and the facilitation of more desirable ways of living could be of strategic value. As the shadow of air war loomed closer, the material aspects of cities began to be re-inscribed as markers of vulnerability in the same way that the people who resided and worked there had been. Congestion and poorly organised urban networks were translated into vulnerability, and the planning discourses of controlled decentralisation became potential responses to a wartime emergency, as well as to the ongoing peacetime

in Architectures of survival
Gordon Pirie

spotlighted the belligerent applications of aviation. Aircraft may not have been decisive in any military campaigns, but their impact extended beyond the battlefront. The war stimulated aircraft production and public awareness of flying. Governments spent more money than ever on aviation; more men took to the air than in peacetime; more families knew somebody who flew; more people worked in aircraft factories

in Air empire
Reconstruction, defence and development in town and country
Adam Page

more varied connotations and uses with the work of the Camouflage Committee during the war. The Committee’s concern with the obscuration of buildings, rather than just designing patterns to hide soldiers in the battlefield, reflected the centrality of air war to defence thinking. War thinking was translated into plans for peacetime reconstruction and development, as architects brought skills learnt during the war into their post-war work. Debates about camouflaging industrial buildings in rural landscapes referred both to the obscuration of sites from the aerial view

in Architectures of survival
Leslie C. Green

Background In peacetime, when diplomatic relations are broken off between two countries, or when one is not represented in the territory of the other, the normal practice is for the unrepresented one to nominate a third state acceptable to the recipient to represent its interests and protect its nationals in the recipient’s territory. 2 Occasionally both states may request

in The contemporary law of armed conflict
David Killingray

in order to help compensate for her demographic weakness compared to Germany. By late 1914 large numbers of French West African troops were fighting on the Western Front. Other colonial armies in peacetime numbered only a few thousand, the largest being the 15–20,000 strong Force Publique in the Belgian Congo. Wartime manpower crises led the colonial powers to amend their policies and to employ

in Guardians of empire
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Adam Page

defense against an attack by air’ represented ‘the materialization of a skilfully evoked nightmare’. It was through these rehearsals, carried out extensively in literature before they were in practice, that ‘the dweller in Megalopolis dies, by anticipation, a thousand deaths’. It was by the imagination of, and then planning for, 2 Introduction the disaster that air raids would bring that the fear of bombing was ‘fixed into routine’ before 1939.2 Mumford, foreshadowing Richards’s remarks in 1941, argued that war and the fear of war had infiltrated peacetime to such

in Architectures of survival