Atrocities that befell Ethiopia during the Dergue regime (1974–91) targeted both the living and the dead. The dead were in fact at the centre of the Dergue’s violence. Not only did the regime violate the corpses of its victims, but it used them as a means to perpetrate violence against the living, the complexity of which requires a critical investigation. This article aims at establishing, from the study of Ethiopian law and practice, the factual and legal issues pertinent to the Dergue’s violence involving the dead. It also examines the efforts made to establish the truth about this particular form of violence as well as the manner in which those responsible for it were prosecuted and eventually punished.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Staff Security and Civilian Protection in the Humanitarian Sector

implementation of humanitarian organisations’ social missions. The Distinction between ‘Staff Security’ and ‘Civilian Protection’ in Policy and Practice The grey literature on civilian protection identifies threat reduction and vulnerability reduction as protection objectives ( IASC, 2016 : 3; Slim and Bonwick, 2005 : 52–3). Threat-reduction strategies aim to change the behaviour of those who would perpetrate violence, while vulnerability-reduction strategies implicitly accept

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs

, including groups as radical and determined as the IS. Similarly, there are no ‘purely criminal’ abductions, whose perpetrators are completely impervious to any social or political pressure. To act, criminal networks need support from citizens and authorities. 9 Their actions may give rise to social and political backlash, increasing the costs of their crimes. According to sociologist Mark Turner, ‘politics is potentially a part of any kidnapping, whatever the motivation of

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Four Decisive Challenges Confronting Humanitarian Innovation

. , Harmer , A. and Czwarno , M. ( 2017 ), Aid Worker Security Report 2017: Behind the Attacks: A Look at the Perpetrators of Violence against Aid Workers , www.humanitarianoutcomes.org/publications/aid-worker-security-report-2017-behind-attacks-look-perpetrators-violence-against-aid (accessed 27 February 2018) . Stoddard , A

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
A Focus on Community Engagement

its authority and show firmness. The préfet ordered the arrest of the perpetrators. Eighteen people were arrested and imprisoned in the Gueckedou gendarmerie. While they awaited trial and possible transfer to Conakry, the revolt and defiant attitudes in the villages was exacerbated. Finally, Sylvain Landry B. Faye was brought in by the WHO to facilitate a community mediation process that would lead to reconciliation and enable community

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Interpreting Violence on Healthcare in the Early Stage of the South Sudanese Civil War

perpetrated by members of the retreating opposition forces or the first government troops reaching town, or both. In any case, massive looting of NGO properties was to be as much a feature of the South Sudanese civil war as violence and predation in health facilities. 5 On the road to Leer, the MSF teams passed thousands of civilians leaving Bentiu on foot, most of them also heading toward Leer and worried that the exhausting journey could be fatal. Hence, for the seven days that followed, MSF

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs

This book is about the ways in which the Holocaust has been rendered and represented as History. From court-rooms to history books, efforts to grapple with and award meaning to the genocide of the Jews, in historical terms, have been a consistent feature of post-war intellectual culture and it is these representations that are the subject of the book. The book confronts the first attempts to form historical narratives of the murder of the European Jews per se. It finds a discourse that is as much concerned with the moral politics of judgement in the post-war world as it is with the Shoah. The book also breaks the narrative of the development of the history of the perpetrators. It argues that once it had been created by historians, others began to ask how institutions and individuals external to Nazi-occupied Europe had responded to the Holocaust. Again a divided historiography is uncovered, and again the divisions are as much concerned with what does and does not constitute legitimate historical enquiry as with the issues of responses to the Holocaust themselves. The book further deals with the victims and survivors - who were often excluded from more general Holocaust narratives. An analysis of work on the testimonies of surviving victims finds that debates about how best to use this material are in essence a discourse concerned with the moral possibilities of history-writing.

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Politics and society in Northern Ireland over half a century

After three decades of violence, Northern Ireland has experienced unprecedented peace. It is now generally accepted that the peace accord which ended the Northern Ireland conflict, the 1998 Belfast Agreement, is an exemplar of this trend. This book examines the impact of the 1998 Agreement which halted the violence on the Northern Irish people. It covers changes in public opinion across all areas of society and politics, including elections, education, community relations and national identity. The surveys presented show that despite peace, Protestants and Catholics remain as deeply divided as ever. The book examines the development of the theory of consociationalism and how it has been woven into the intellectual debate about the nature of the Northern Ireland conflict. The role of religion in conflict transformation has emerged as an important issue in Northern Ireland. Ethnonationalism in Northern Ireland is fuelled by its multifaceted and complex nature. The constitutional position of Northern Ireland has been the topic of recurring debate since partition in 1920. The role of education in promoting social cohesion in post-conflict societies is often controversial. The book explores both the nature and extent of victimhood and the main perpetrators of the political violence. The key elements of a consociational approach include a grand coalition representing the main segments of society; proportionality in representation; community (segmental) autonomy; and mutual vetoes on key decisions. The main lesson of peace-making in Northern Ireland is that political reform has to be accompanied by social change across the society as a whole.

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destructiveness. The persecution of the Jews was often seen only in a universal light during this period – the experience of the victims telling us about universal human reactions to trauma and degradation; the policies of the perpetrators considered in their much wider contexts, such as general population movements or in the comparative contexts of totalitarianism or colonialism. Where vigorous debates were concerned only with the Jewish victims of Nazism, they were often internal discourses concerned with Jewish behaviour. The tendency toward universalisation reflected both

in Debates on the Holocaust

, indeed, does not even warrant, some facile gesture of forgiveness that Wiesenthal is not empowered to give anyway. Wiesenthal’s attentive silence is the most ethical option in the face of so hideous a crime.28 For Hatley, ‘Wiesenthal is helpless before the perpetrator’s suffering at precisely the moment when he might have reasonably been tempted to cruelty, to cold revenge, or at the very least, to a lasting indifference.’29 In other words, Wiesenthal’s silence has both transcended and borne witness against violence. In sympathy and horror and with a violently pounding

in The ethics of researching war