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Socio-cultural considerations of intellectual disability
Irina Metzler

mitigating circumstances, i.e. they could not be held responsible for their criminal or ‘sinful’ actions, but on the other hand subject to the authority, rule and discipline of their superiors, i.e. parents or guardians. The patronisation of certain human members of a pre-modern household, such as children, women, servants and entertainers – and thus dwarfs and fools – has been compared to the abuse of power that is also exercised over non-human creatures, commonly referred to as pets; all of these could simultaneously be highly valued and severely controlled, trained to

in Fools and idiots?
Sex education, abstinence and contraception
Edward Ashbee

TBA_C04.qxd 08/02/2007 11:20 AM Page 102 4 ‘Pet your dog . . .’: sex education, abstinence and contraception The development and growth of sex education programmes was tied to the ‘sexual revolution’ of the 1960s and 1970s. The Sex Information and Education Council of the United States (SIECUS), the principal nationwide advocacy organisation and a major curriculum provider, was established in 1964. As Janice Irvine records: school sex education expanded through the sixties. Emboldened by the times . . . many communities initiated programs or amplified those

in The Bush administration, sex and the moral agenda
Abstract only
Author: Juliana Adelman

This book is a history of nineteenth-century Dublin through human–animal relationships. The book offers a unique perspective on ordinary life in the Irish metropolis during a century of significant change and reform. The book argues that the exploitation of animals formed a key component of urban change, from municipal reform to class formation to the expansion of public health and policing. The book uses a social history approach but draws on a range of new and underused sources including archives of the humane society and the Zoological Society, popular songs, visual ephemera and diaries. The book moves chronologically from 1830 to 1900 with each chapter focused on specific animals and their relationship to urban changes. The first chapter examines the impact of Catholic emancipation and rising Catholic nationalism on the Zoological Society and the humane movement. The second chapter looks at how the Great Famine drove reformers to try to clearly separate the urban poor from animals. The third chapter considers the impact of the expanding cattle trade on the geography, infrastructure and living conditions of the city. The fourth chapter looks at how middle-class ideas about the control of animals entered the legal code and changed where and how pigs and dogs were kept in the city. The fifth and final chapter compares ideas of the city as modern or declining and how contrasting visions were associated with particular animals. The book will interest anyone fascinated by the history of cities, the history of Dublin or the history of Ireland.

Jeroen Joly and Friederike Richter

Congress does two things well: nothing and overreacting. Michael Oxley Governmental policies generally change only marginally over time; however, every once in a while, policies also change dramatically. 1 , 2 The pungent quote from former Republican US Representative Michael Oxley very well reflects this main idea behind punctuated equilibrium (PE) as a policy-making theory. Punctuated equilibrium theory (PET), first put forward by Frank Baumgartner and Bryan Jones ( 1993 ), explains how the same institutional set-up, usually

in Foreign policy as public policy?
Gothic kinship in Stephen King’s Pet Sematary
John Sears

‘There was something very familiar in this rap, something eerily familiar –’ ( Pet Sematary ). Early in Stephen King’s Pet Sematary (1983), a neighbourly act of kindness establishes a surrogate family relationship – between a symbolic

in Gothic kinship
Dogs, pigs and police, 1865–80
Juliana Adelman

livestock and a new dog licence regulating the ownership and control of dogs. By the later decades of the nineteenth century, certain animals were no longer welcome in the modern city. In New York, a campaign eliminated free-range pigs in the 1840s. 4 In London and Paris, fear of rabies led to increased controls on how one could keep a pet dog in the city streets. 5 In Dublin, policemen captured roaming or unlicensed dogs and removed pigs from homes and yards. The regulation of pigs and dogs demonstrates the growing importance of the Dublin Metropolitan Police as the

in Civilised by beasts
Abstract only
Juliana Adelman

targeted those who kept a small number of animals in circumstances that they increasingly viewed as detrimental to the public’s health or challenging to public order. We have seen how ideas about the control of animals, and their proper treatment, were entangled with ideas about class and thus how new regulations often affected social groups differently. The trend during the century was for middle-class reformers to seek fewer food animals within the city boundaries as well as greater restrictions on how all animals were kept and treated, including pets. Dublin

in Civilised by beasts
Silvia Granata

George Henry Lewes aptly captured the ambiguity underlying the status of marine animals when, in his Seaside Studies , he described the sea anemone as ‘[a]t once pet, ornament, and “subject for dissection”’. 1 Thanks to the saltwater tank, some sea animals also became a familiar (although still somehow weird) presence in people’s everyday life. Such a presence was a great novelty at the time, and at first it was not easy to make sense of it, as these creatures hardly fitted pre-established ideas of domestic animals. Their marked otherness, and the limited

in The Victorian aquarium
Capturing ordinary human–animal encounters
Becky Tipper

recent years, however, qualitative research has explored sites of human–animal encounter in Western societies, such as slaughterhouses, farms and research laboratories. This research is insightful, but these are still often intense and rarefied situations rather than commonplace experiences. Relationships with household pets, of course, are more widespread, and there is a rapidly growing body of research into these intimate and complex relationships. But I wanted to look beyond this focus on pets and their owners to other everyday ways that people encounter animals

in Mundane Methods
Open Access (free)
black magic and bogeymen in Northern Ireland, 1973–74
Richard Jenkins

‘Black Man’ stories – once again drawing upon motifs of butchered pets, the Army, and satanic ritual – were still current in the mid-1980s. 77 Feldman’s explanation of these stories is that they both reflect the actual counter-insurgency tactics of the British Army’s Parachute Regiment and are a ‘cultural elaboration of terror’, a symbolic reworking of violence and its practitioners. The ‘Black Man’ genre

in Witchcraft Continued