Northern Ireland is regarded as one of the most successful 'post conflict' societies in the world. The reimaging of Belfast as a 'post conflict' city tends to gloss over these persistent divisions. This book provides a thought provoking and comprehensive account of teenagers' perceptions and experiences of the physical and symbolic divisions that exist in 'post conflict' Belfast. Despite Northern Ireland's new status as one of the most successful examples of the resolution of what was once seen as an intractable conflict, the peace walls which separate Protestant and Catholic areas remain in place. The book examines the micro-geographies of young people and draws attention to the social practices, discourses and networks that directly or indirectly (re)shape how they make sense of and negotiate life in Belfast. It focuses is on the physical landscape enclosing interface areas and the impact that it has on the perceptions and actions of young people living in these areas. The book explores how physical divisions are perceived and experienced by young people who live in interface areas and how they view the architecture of division. It pays attention to the impact of place on teenagers' social relations within and between the localities in which they reside. The city centre of Belfast epitomises the city's status as a 'post conflict' city. A recurring argument is that identity does not exist 'out there'. The book shows how social relationships are inherently spatial and how identities are influenced by place and impact on it.
, attention is paid to the physical features of interface areas in order to examine how teenagers manage, reproduce and challenge the spatial and physical divisions that surround the localities in which they live. Within these spaces, young people live in separate, largely homogeneous housing estates based on Catholic/Protestant identification and attend schools divided on the same dimension. Each landscape
Quarantines were intended as prophylactic institutions: detaining, regulating and sanitising the movement of individuals and merchandise crossing the boundaries of a state. This chapter investigates these quarantine practices and other more complex multifunctional operations by focusing on the foremost quarantine institutions – the lazarettos – in southern Europe. Lazarettos are taken as filtering instruments which selected, separated, disinfected and disciplined ‘alien’ or returning embodied subjects before entering the country. They are analysed as inbuilt edifices, as an integral part of the state border itself. Their internal arrangements – spatial structures, physical divisions and social organisation – strictly conformed to and assisted the disinfection of persons, merchandise, animals and the expurgation of mail. Set against these permanent quarantine structures, this study then shifts attention to the actual protagonists – from the physicians to the health guardians to the expurgators – who were indispensable for quarantine to function. This helps us to examine quarantine disinfection and expurgation, not only as crucial sanitary procedures, but also as purifying cross-border rituals. While critically employing Giorgio Agamben’s idea of ‘apparatus’ to explore the basic functions of the lazaretto – to constrain, regulate and govern the movement and influx of persons, goods and animals – this study also brings to the fore other practices of filtering and expurgation which rendered the lazaretto more of a multifunctional site, serving as a crossover between detention centre, infective hospital, asylum, sanitary and social behavioural laboratory, postal-censor office and ritual purifying site on a country’s sea border.
. Calluses, reflexes, ears, and fingers are attuned to the instrument until the player may no longer experience the physical divisions that separate her from her instrument. By resisting the player’s gestures, and by directing the application of force, the instrument guides desire and generates new ideas in the player. This blurs both the
official end and established a forced power-sharing Executive. However, the region remains plagued by ethnic division and the socio-economic scars of the conflict. Housing, schools and many social and cultural activities remain segregated. More than 108 ‘peace walls’ create physical divisions between majority Protestant and Catholic neighbourhoods, most of which were erected after the ceasefire. A period of relative political and social stability, coupled with the expansion of the European Union in 2004–2007 (A8 and A2 accession), have led to a
-sectarian violence has been played out. Such contemporary interfacing reflects the fluidity of demographic shifts within the private housing sector, whereas the social housing stock, and the commitment to identity within such places, present a rigid and enduring set of boundaries. The most evident interfaces are those marked by high walls that both sunder and demarcate the boundaries between communities, and a list of the current physical divisions in the city, as acknowledged by the NIHE, is provided in Table 4.4. Somewhat ominously, there were sixteen interface walls in 1994
the introduction to this chapter). At the start of the pandemic, there was cross-party consensus on the need to give the Johnson government the powers it decided it needed to make secondary legislation to respond to the virus. The Coronavirus Act, which created many of these new powers, was passed following just a single day's scrutiny in the Commons and without votes – the need for physical ‘divisions’ – which were difficult with social distancing – having been avoided through inter-party negotiations. But as the weeks and months passed, the
pitiless aggression. Shakespeare inflicts this aggression by demolishing the principal aesthetic feature of Troilus and Criseyde , which is physical and temporal division. Physical division manifests itself in highly divided, articulated spaces of the poem’s represented action. In so far as the pressures of war permit, these discrete spaces are shielded from each other. Temporal divisions manifest
disciplinary as well as medical functions; on emigrant ships separate spaces housed single men, women, and married couples. The more complicated the requirements for social divisions within ships, the more problematic the process of ventilating these spaces became. On convict ships, carpenters fitted extra bars and stanchions to construct prisons and secure hatches. The physical division of the ship’s internal structure had profound implications for the physical as well as the moral well-being of convicts and emigrants. 105 In 1857, for
sense – the ‘iron curtain’ ran through Central Europe, divided Germany, and prevented the movement of peoples across the continent from east to west. Overlapping this physical division was an institutional one. Western Europe was organised around NATO (thus ensuring a solid attachment to North America), the EC/European Economic Community (EEC) 10 and, to some degree, the Council of Europe. Eastern