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Imagining and planning for death in wartime
Lucy Noakes

• 3 • Planning Imagining and planning for death in wartime Introduction: the age of anxiety The 1930s were an anxious time, not just for those who feared or anticipated an apocalyptic future war, or who watched with trepidation the emergence of new ideologies and new governments willing to attack civilians. They were also a time of anxiety for the civil servants, politicians and military bureaucrats charged with planning for the prevention and management of death in any future conflict. The interwar years were a complex period for the development of theory and

in Dying for the nation
Transnationality and urban ideas in Africa and Palestine
Editors: Liora Bigon and Yossi Katz

The present collection is intended as a study of European planning ideas in the form of garden city concepts and practices in their broadest sense, and the ways these were transmitted, diffused and diverted in various colonial territories and situations. The socio-political, geographical and cultural implications of the processes are analysed here by means of cases from the global South, namely from French and British colonial territories in Africa as well as from Ottoman and British Mandate Palestine. The focus on the extra-European planning history of Europe – particularly in Africa and Palestine in the context of the garden city – is unprecedented in research literature, which tends to concentrate on the global North. Our focus on transnational aspects of the garden city requires a study of frameworks and documentation that extend beyond national borders. The present collection is composed of chapters written by an international network of specialists whose comparative views and critical approaches challenge the more conventional, Eurocentric, narrative relating to garden cities. A guiding principle that runs through this collection is that the spread of garden city ideas into the selected colonial territories was not uni-directional, considering the ‘traditional', reductive, centre-periphery analytical framework that characterises urban studies. This spread of ideas – by nature an uncontrolled process – was rather diffusive, crossing complex and multiple frontiers, and sometimes including quite unexpected ‘flows'.

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Stephen Benedict Dyson

With the promulgation of the Bush doctrine, the president had been closely engaged whilst the secretary of defence had largely stood aside from policy deliberations. The doctrine bore the clear imprint of the president’s worldview. With planning for the invasion of Iraq, Secretary Rumsfeld had taken control, and the president had delegated. The war plan was a Rumsfeld product

in Leaders in conflict
Future minority governments/coalitions
Timothy Noël Peacock

8 Myths and secret plans: future minority governments/coalitions Before and during a general election campaign there can be no public admission that the [Conservative] Party expects anything less than victory with an overall majority: to give any hint that we had planned for any other contingency would tend to increase the minority parties’ vote. We have thought it prudent, nevertheless, to set down, in case they are ever needed in the aftermath of an election, some considerations first on the constitutional and historical aspects of a hung parliament, secondly

in The British tradition of minority government
Air raid precautions for peace and for war
Adam Page

2 Planning a ‘militant peace’: air raid precautions for peace and for war You couldn’t believe that it would ever break, that the bombs had to fall. (Patrick Hamilton, 1941)1 In 1935, the British government transferred the Air Raid Precautions (ARP) Department from the CID to the Home Office.2 The move signalled a change in the government’s perception of aerial bombing from a matter of distant colonial policing to one of a real threat to British cities. The ARP Department was an extension and formalisation of the Sub-Committee on Air Raid Precautions that had

in Architectures of survival
Going beyond a communicative approach 
Ihnji Jon

Introduction The word ‘planning’ contains so many implications that it is not easy to define it in a few sentences. According to Healey (2009) , planning is a governance practice that not only concerns existing relations but also opens up future possibilities for improving the conditions of human co-existence. In this sense, planning includes the tasks of today and the future. The tasks assigned to planning in the past were much clearer than is the case today. We used to assume, with certainty, that we could analyse and understand the problems of today and

in The power of pragmatism
Chris Perkins and Martin Dodge

Visual representations have often played a crucial role in imagining future urban forms. In the aftermath of the Second World War, a noteworthy new genre of urban plan was published in Britain, most deploying seductively optimistic illustrations of ways forward not only for the reconstruction of bomb-damaged towns and cities but also for places left largely undamaged. Visual representations have often played a crucial role in imagining future urban forms. In the aftermath of the Second World War, a noteworthy new genre of urban plan was published in Britain, most deploying seductively optimistic illustrations of ways forward not only for the reconstruction of bomb-damaged towns and cities but also for places left largely undamaged. This paper assesses the contribution of visual elements in this,process with a detailed case study of the maps, statistical charts, architectural drawings and photographs enrolled into the 1945 City of Manchester Plan. The cultural production of these visual representations is evaluated. Our analysis interprets the form, symbology and active work of different imagery in the process of reimagining Manchester, but also assesses the role of these images as markers of a particular moment in the cultural economy of the city. This analysis is carried out in relation to the ethos of the Plan as a whole.

Bulletin of the John Rylands Library
Stephen Benedict Dyson

Considered in isolation from what came later, the invasion plan for Iraq was daring in conception, achieved its goals with stunning speed and at low cost, and represented a sparkling advertisement for Rumsfeld’s vision of a light, fast army. Planning saw close interaction between Rumsfeld and Gen. Tommy Franks, showing the positive potential of Rumsfeld’s leadership style

in Leaders in conflict
The search for a place vision after the ‘troubles’
William J. V. Neill and Geraint Ellis

M1426 - COULTER TEXT.qxp:GRAHAM Q7 17/7/08 08:01 Page 88 5 Spatial planning in contested territory: the search for a place vision after the ‘troubles’ William J. V. Neill and Geraint Ellis The purpose of this chapter is to review the history of strategic spatial policy in post-partition Northern Ireland. The principal focus of the chapter falls on developments since the Good Friday Agreement in 1998, especially in relation to the vision of regional planning as a whole and physical image enhancement of the ‘post-conflict’ city of Belfast in particular. The

in Northern Ireland after the troubles
Dakar between garden city and cité-jardin
Liora Bigon

, symbolised – in the colonial bourgeoisie context up until the interwar period – a civilising force, the domestication of a savage environment. Garden city versus cité-jardin : metropolitan variations As implied above, the responses of Western countries to the town planning problems that faced their expanding urban centres in an industrial age were

in Garden cities and colonial planning