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This book provides readers with an analytical framework that serves to investigate and explain how the EU adapts its foreign policy in the wake of crisis. While a range of studies dedicated to foreign policy stability and change exist for the US context, such analyses are rare for the assessment and measurement of foreign policy change at the European Union level. This book explores a range of theories of (foreign) policy change and assesses their value for explaining EU foreign policy change. Changes to EU foreign policy, this study proposes based upon an in-depth investigation of recent episodes in which foreign policy has changed, are not captured well using existing typologies of policy change from other fields of study. Offering a new perspective on the question of change, this book proposes an analytical framework focused on how institutions, institutional ‘plasticity’ and temporal context impact on the decision-making process leading to change. It thus provides readers with the tools to analyse, explain and conceptualise the various change outcomes in EU foreign policy. In so doing, it sets the theoretical approach of historical institutionalism to work in an EU foreign policy setting. Based on a rich empirical analysis of five case studies it provides a revised typology of EU foreign policy change. It proposes two novel forms of foreign policy change, symbolic change and constructive ambiguity, as frequent and important outcomes of the EU decision-making process.
substance was and why this particular output came out of the decision-making process. To understand the outcome, I argue, we should consider how institutions and temporal context affected this process.
Two factors explaining EU foreign policy change
When we imagine change to EU foreign policy, I argue, we need to know two things. First, what is the institutional ‘plasticity’ of the policy area? Plasticity refers to the extent to which institutions give form to
suspending, on the one hand, and safe-keeping and preserving, on the other. Further, I will describe Jessner’s Regie as inducing theatral play
through effects of ‘plasticity’. Here, I do not, for once, refer to the well-known concept
of stage plasticity introduced by Meyerhold to the language of Regie (which would
not be inappropriate for an analysis of Jessner’s works), but rather refer to Catherine
Malabou’s Hegelian exploration of this term. For her, the concept of plasticity characterises Hegelian dialectic thinking (Malabou 2005). It is, precisely, the dialectic
The science is one element that gives licence to a fluid perception of
time, which suits McEwan’s purpose admirably, of course, in a novel
about the child within us all, and the need to foster strong personal
and intergenerational bonds as a necessary component of the healthy
body politic.7 Beyond this, the treatment of time is also fashioned by
McEwan’s allusion to the post-Einsteinian notion of the plasticity
of time and space. There is a particular locus of this (though its
implications reach out into the rest of the novel). This is the fantastic
episode at ‘The
categories: symbolic policy change and constructive ambiguity.
Chapters 2 and 3 demonstrated how the plasticity of the institutional arrangements in areas of EU foreign policy, such as the European Neighbourhood Policy, has allowed key players to emerge at the member state level in the immediate aftermath of a critical juncture. This research divided the key players in the reform process into actors who see the critical juncture as an opportunity to revise the status quo on one hand, and
was the primary location of affective cues that tells the brain what the experience is. Whatever particularities a historian might come up with, affect theorists would posit that the basic human biology and automated innate systems of affect remain the same.
Tomkins’ research in this area, which was first published in 1964, pre-dates what we now know about brain plasticity, about micro-evolution and epigenetics, and about the historical changes in responses to sensory stimuli. 10 Much of this will be covered in the next chapter. The work, however, was
historically has been governed has made the institutions quite plastic – able to both shape and be shaped by the decision-making process.
In this particular case this plasticity meant that actors derived decision-making powers and significant leeway from the ENP institutions that enabled them to subsequently steer and guide the neighbourhood policies by taking a pro-active approach. The Eastern Partnership (EaP) bears testimony to this room for policy entrepreneurship. In this particular crisis, moreover, the technocratic and trade-oriented approach of
Jonathan Bignell, Sarah Cardwell, and Lucy Fife Donaldson
images and sounds negotiate with viewers’ changing expectations of the medium (Bignell 2019 ). The chapters in this volume analyse some of the expressive potential that the visual and acoustic material of television can have. They explore and evaluate the plasticity of images, sounds and their interrelationships, through close attention to programmes that invite a reconsideration of how television sound and image can engage and affect their audiences.
The structure of the book
The choices of programme in the volume are eclectic
Richly illustrated with over 110 colour and black and white images, the book
productively contests the supposedly exclusive feminine aspect of the style
moderne (art deco). It explores how alternative, parallel and overlapping
experiences and expressions of decorative modernism, nationalism, gender and
sexuality in the heady years surrounding World War I converge in the protean
figure of the deco dandy. As such, the book significantly departs from and
corrects the assumptions and biases that have dominated scholarship on and
popular perceptions of art deco. The book outlines how designed products and
representations of and for the dandy both existed within and outwith normative
expectations of gender and sexuality complicating men’s relationship to consumer
culture more broadly and the moderne more specifically. Through a sustained
focus on the figure of the dandy, the book offers a broader view of art deco by
claiming a greater place for the male body and masculinity in this history than
has been given to date. The mass appeal of the dandy in the 1920s was a way to
redeploy an iconic, popular and well-known typology as a means to stimulate
national industries, to engender a desire for all things made in France.
Important, essential and productive moments in the history of the cultural life
of Paris presented in the book are instructive of the changing role performed by
consumerism, masculinity, design history and national identity.