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Abstract only
Guy Austin

The popularity of the polar The first French thrillers date from the silent era, with Louis Feuillade’s popular Fantômas and Judex series (between 1913 and 1918). Since World War Two, however, the form has often been associated with the American genres of the film noir and the gangster film (see below). The end of the war saw an influx of American crime novels published

in Contemporary French cinema
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Russia’s twenty-first-century power base
Nazrin Mehdiyeva

Control Over Northern Sea Route”, Maritime Executive , 8 March 2019, www.maritime-executive.com/article/russia-tightens-control-over-northern-sea-route (accessed 29/07/2021). 42 Quoted in “Polar Powers: Russia's Bid for Supremacy in the Arctic Ocean”, Financial Times , 27 April 2019. 43 Ambassador

in Russian Grand Strategy in the era of global power competition
Exploring Nineteenth-Century Polar Gothic Space
Katherine Bowers

This article considers a unified polar Gothic as a way of examining texts set in Arctic and Antarctic space. Through analysis of Coleridge‘s The Rime of the Ancient Mariner, Shelleys Frankenstein, and Poe‘s The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym of Nantucket , the author creates a framework for understanding polar Gothic, which includes liminal space, the supernatural, the Gothic sublime, ghosts and apparitions, and imperial Gothic anxieties about the degradation of civilisation. Analysing Verne‘s scientific-adventure novel The Adventures of Captain Hatteras (1866) with this framework, the author contextualises the continued public interest in the lost Franklin expedition and reflects on nineteenth-century polar Gothic anxieties in the present day. Polar space creates an uncanny potential for seeing ones own self and examining what lies beneath the surface of ones own rational mind.

Gothic Studies
Mel Bunce

, J. ( 2015 ), ‘ Regimes of Posttruth, Postpolitics, and Attention Economies ’, Communication, Culture & Critique , 8 : 2 , 327 – 33 . Harvey , J. et al. ( 2017 ), ‘ Internet Blogs, Polar Bears, and Climate-Change Denial by Proxy ’, BioScience , 68 : 4 , 281 – 7 . Hayden , S. ( 2018 ), ‘ Tourist Trap ’, Newsweek , 13 April . Head , J. ( 2017 ), ‘ Myanmar Conflict: Fake Photos Inflame Tension ’, BBC News , www

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
The Law and Politics of Responding to Attacks against Aid Workers
Julia Brooks
and
Rob Grace

acceptable compromise, and a perpetual reassessment of these issues across contexts and over time ( Table 1 ). Table 1 Mapping out security management approaches Overarching aim Orientation External Internal Confront threats via ‘deep’ transformation ‘Acceptance’ ‘Synthesis’ Confront threats via ‘shallow’ transformation ‘Deterrence’ ‘Decoupling’ Mitigate vulnerabilities ‘Protection’ ‘Risk management’ In this sense, ‘synthesis’ has a double meaning in that it also refers to the polar opposite

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
What Lessons Can Be Drawn from Case Studies in France, the United States and Madagascar?
Hugo Carnell

allowed disembarking passengers and cargo to be systemically quarantined. Between 1663 and 1683, the ‘new lazaret ’ was constructed: a separate compound with eighteen large sheds and its own port, managed by a dedicated staff ( Devaux, 2013 : 172). By 1720, Marseille’s quarantine system had developed into a sophisticated ‘tri-polar’ system, where health officials chosen from among the city’s merchants worked from a dedicated

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
An introduction
Author:

This book provides an introduction to French film studies. It concentrates on films which have had either a theatrical or video release in Britain, or which are available on video or DVD from France. Most avant-garde film-makers, including Germaine Dulac, were unable to continue in the 1930s, faced with the technical demands and high production costs of the sound film. Exacerbated by the Depression, and above all by the financial collapse of both Gaumont and Pathé, film production fell from 158 features the previous year to only 126 in 1934, and 115 in 1935. While poetic realism was at its height, a talismanic figure in post-war film was faced with a generally lukewarm reception from critics and audiences. Thanks largely to German finance and also to an influx of filmmakers replacing those who had departed, after 1940 French film. If 1968 marked a watershed in French cinema's engagement with politics and history 1974 did the same for representations of sexuality. In that year, pornography entered mainstream French cinema. Although film-making remains male-dominated in France as elsewhere, 'more women have taken an active part in French cinema than in any other national film industry'. A quarter of all French films made in 1981 were polars, and many of those were box-office successes. French fantasy has had a particular national outlet: the bande dessinée. The heritage film often takes its subject or source from the 'culturally respectable classicisms of literature, painting, music'.

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The extension of jurisdiction in the Anthropocene north
Bruce Erickson
,
Liam Kennedy-Slaney
, and
James Wilt

futures for an extractive-administrative colonialism. Two cases anchor our observations: the scientific approach held within the Arctic Pilot Project that attempted to produce ice as an object with a predictable and actionable future, and the securitization of polar bears through monitoring and deterrence programmes in northern towns. Before turning to those cases, we set the scene by considering the interplay between jurisdiction claims in the north, changing sea ice, and the rise of northern environmentalism. This is, as we point out below, a story

in Ice humanities
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Robert G. David

Traditional histories and new approaches London lies about mid-way between the Arctic Circle and the north coast of Africa. Given the relative proximity of the Arctic to much of Britain, and British people’s fascination with ice and the polar regions, it is somewhat surprising to find that, beyond the confines of a small number of specialist polar

in The Arctic in the British imagination 1818–1914
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Los amantes del Círculo Polar (1998)
Rob Stone

6 A question of love: Los amantes del Círculo Polar (1998) Spanish film audiences grew during the decade of the 1990s along with the number of private television channels and new cinemas, 982 of which had opened by its end (ICAA 2003). However, so did the average cost of film production, prompting Spanish companies to seek foreign investors and co-production partners with their sights on the pan-European multiplex audiences and the favours of such American distributors as Miramax and Fine Line. By the mid 1990s, however, an impending crisis in the Spanish film

in Julio Medem