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Abstract only
Guy Austin

The popularity of the polar The first French thrillers date from the silent era, with Louis Feuillade’s popular Fantômas and Judex series (between 1913 and 1918). Since World War Two, however, the form has often been associated with the American genres of the film noir and the gangster film (see below). The end of the war saw an influx of American crime novels published

in Contemporary French cinema
Abstract only
Russia’s twenty-first-century power base
Nazrin Mehdiyeva

Control Over Northern Sea Route”, Maritime Executive , 8 March 2019, www.maritime-executive.com/article/russia-tightens-control-over-northern-sea-route (accessed 29/07/2021). 42 Quoted in “Polar Powers: Russia's Bid for Supremacy in the Arctic Ocean”, Financial Times , 27 April 2019. 43 Ambassador

in Russian Grand Strategy in the era of global power competition
Malcolm Pemberton
and
Nicholas Rau

; manipulate expressions involving sines and cosines, using the addition formulae; differentiate and integrate expressions involving trigonometric functions; convert Cartesian coordinates into polar coordinates, and vice versa

in Mathematics for Economists
Malcolm Pemberton
and
Nicholas Rau

distance from the origin of the point representing z . We explained in Section 24.4 that there are two common ways of describing a point in the plane by a pair of real numbers, namely the Cartesian coordinates and the polar coordinates. A diagram showing the Cartesian and polar coordinates of one or more points in the plane, where points are understood to represent complex numbers, is known as the Argand

in Mathematics for Economists
Malcolm Pemberton
and
Nicholas Rau

Separating hyperplane theorem and strict separation theorem for convex sets in Euclidean space. Duality theorem for convex cones. Application to the fundamental theorems of welfare economics. The concepts of bounded steepness and subgradient of a convex function. Proof of the Karush–Kuhn–Tucker theorem of convex programming.

in Mathematics for Economists
Exploring Nineteenth-Century Polar Gothic Space
Katherine Bowers

This article considers a unified polar Gothic as a way of examining texts set in Arctic and Antarctic space. Through analysis of Coleridge‘s The Rime of the Ancient Mariner, Shelleys Frankenstein, and Poe‘s The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym of Nantucket , the author creates a framework for understanding polar Gothic, which includes liminal space, the supernatural, the Gothic sublime, ghosts and apparitions, and imperial Gothic anxieties about the degradation of civilisation. Analysing Verne‘s scientific-adventure novel The Adventures of Captain Hatteras (1866) with this framework, the author contextualises the continued public interest in the lost Franklin expedition and reflects on nineteenth-century polar Gothic anxieties in the present day. Polar space creates an uncanny potential for seeing ones own self and examining what lies beneath the surface of ones own rational mind.

Gothic Studies
Mel Bunce

, J. ( 2015 ), ‘ Regimes of Posttruth, Postpolitics, and Attention Economies ’, Communication, Culture & Critique , 8 : 2 , 327 – 33 . Harvey , J. et al. ( 2017 ), ‘ Internet Blogs, Polar Bears, and Climate-Change Denial by Proxy ’, BioScience , 68 : 4 , 281 – 7 . Hayden , S. ( 2018 ), ‘ Tourist Trap ’, Newsweek , 13 April . Head , J. ( 2017 ), ‘ Myanmar Conflict: Fake Photos Inflame Tension ’, BBC News , www

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
What Lessons Can Be Drawn from Case Studies in France, the United States and Madagascar?
Hugo Carnell

allowed disembarking passengers and cargo to be systemically quarantined. Between 1663 and 1683, the ‘new lazaret ’ was constructed: a separate compound with eighteen large sheds and its own port, managed by a dedicated staff ( Devaux, 2013 : 172). By 1720, Marseille’s quarantine system had developed into a sophisticated ‘tri-polar’ system, where health officials chosen from among the city’s merchants worked from a dedicated

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
The Law and Politics of Responding to Attacks against Aid Workers
Julia Brooks
and
Rob Grace

acceptable compromise, and a perpetual reassessment of these issues across contexts and over time ( Table 1 ). Table 1 Mapping out security management approaches Overarching aim Orientation External Internal Confront threats via ‘deep’ transformation ‘Acceptance’ ‘Synthesis’ Confront threats via ‘shallow’ transformation ‘Deterrence’ ‘Decoupling’ Mitigate vulnerabilities ‘Protection’ ‘Risk management’ In this sense, ‘synthesis’ has a double meaning in that it also refers to the polar opposite

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
An introduction
Author:

This book provides an introduction to French film studies. It concentrates on films which have had either a theatrical or video release in Britain, or which are available on video or DVD from France. Most avant-garde film-makers, including Germaine Dulac, were unable to continue in the 1930s, faced with the technical demands and high production costs of the sound film. Exacerbated by the Depression, and above all by the financial collapse of both Gaumont and Pathé, film production fell from 158 features the previous year to only 126 in 1934, and 115 in 1935. While poetic realism was at its height, a talismanic figure in post-war film was faced with a generally lukewarm reception from critics and audiences. Thanks largely to German finance and also to an influx of filmmakers replacing those who had departed, after 1940 French film. If 1968 marked a watershed in French cinema's engagement with politics and history 1974 did the same for representations of sexuality. In that year, pornography entered mainstream French cinema. Although film-making remains male-dominated in France as elsewhere, 'more women have taken an active part in French cinema than in any other national film industry'. A quarter of all French films made in 1981 were polars, and many of those were box-office successes. French fantasy has had a particular national outlet: the bande dessinée. The heritage film often takes its subject or source from the 'culturally respectable classicisms of literature, painting, music'.