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Nikki Ikani

type of change are scattered among different institutions and member states operating at different levels. If ‘the’ EU is Eurocentric, or if ‘the’ EU has an aversion to change, why? How did this come about? Have there been change processes, and what were the key impediments? Equally important is the question: has there really been no change at all? Chapters 2 and 3 gave in-depth accounts of how and under what conditions critical junctures may produce policy changes. This chapter develops a typology of EU foreign policy

in Crisis and change in European Union foreign policy
The Neighbourhood Policy revised
Nikki Ikani

Italy as key member state actors in the 2011 ENP reform round, with the EEAS and the Commission as the most important actors at the European level in the process of reforming the ENP. The following section describes how this immediate temporal context influenced the process of policy change. It shows that the outcome – the different forms of change to the ENP – would have been different if the temporal context had been different; that this particular outcome was not necessary but at least in part the product of the particular temporal context. It provides various

in Crisis and change in European Union foreign policy
Nikki Ikani

shed light on what kinds of policy change it produced, at what level they took place, what their actual substance was and why this particular output came out of the decision-making process. To understand the outcome, I argue, we should consider how institutions and temporal context affected this process. Figure 1.1 summarises the analytical framework for EU policy change in this book, focusing on this decision-making process. Figure 1

in Crisis and change in European Union foreign policy
Changing the Neighbourhood Policy once more
Nikki Ikani

moderate). The actions of Russia in Ukraine, and the breaching of international law, equally served to make the neighbourhood policy even more salient and ENP reform more urgent. This was exacerbated by the tragedy of the shooting-down of flight MH17 over eastern Ukraine in the summer of 2014. It compounded the changing stance of the key actors, who thenceforth were all eager to reform the ENP. This chapter describes how these temporal contingencies fed into the policy changes made to the ENP, first in the

in Crisis and change in European Union foreign policy
Ideas, knowledge and policy change
Author: Alex Balch

Labour migration has become one of the hot topics in Europe, especially since 2000 with the shift from restriction to managed migration. This book provides an account of policy change over labour migration in Europe during this new era of governance. It has implications for debates about the contemporary governance of labour migration in Europe, and questions about the impact of an emergent EU migration regime in the context of a globalising labour market. The key findings offer a deeper understanding of the linkages between those engaged in policymaking and the kinds of communities that produce usable knowledge.

A framework of EU foreign policy change
Author: Nikki Ikani

This book provides readers with an analytical framework that serves to investigate and explain how the EU adapts its foreign policy in the wake of crisis. While a range of studies dedicated to foreign policy stability and change exist for the US context, such analyses are rare for the assessment and measurement of foreign policy change at the European Union level. This book explores a range of theories of (foreign) policy change and assesses their value for explaining EU foreign policy change. Changes to EU foreign policy, this study proposes based upon an in-depth investigation of recent episodes in which foreign policy has changed, are not captured well using existing typologies of policy change from other fields of study.

Offering a new perspective on the question of change, this book proposes an analytical framework focused on how institutions, institutional ‘plasticity’ and temporal context impact on the decision-making process leading to change. It thus provides readers with the tools to analyse, explain and conceptualise the various change outcomes in EU foreign policy. In so doing, it sets the theoretical approach of historical institutionalism to work in an EU foreign policy setting. Based on a rich empirical analysis of five case studies it provides a revised typology of EU foreign policy change. It proposes two novel forms of foreign policy change, symbolic change and constructive ambiguity, as frequent and important outcomes of the EU decision-making process.

Arjun Claire

been conceived as a triumph of reason and rationality over emotions. To the extent it relies on emotions, it carefully directs them through curated narratives deployed in the realisation of predetermined advocacy objectives ( Fernandes, 2017 : 2). With humanitarian actors increasingly engaging in specific thematic issues and policy changes, they have privileged authoritative facts that positions them as experts, enhancing their legitimacy in the eyes of decision

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Hegemony, policy and the rhetoric of ‘sustainable aviation’

The massive expansion of global aviation, its insatiable demand for airport capacity, and its growing contribution to carbon emissions, makes it a critical societal problem. Alongside traditional concerns about noise and air pollution, and the disruption of local communities, airport politics has been connected to the problems of climate change and peak oil. Yet it is still thought to be a driver of economic growth and connectivity in an increasingly mobile world.

The Politics of Airport Expansion in the UK provides the first in-depth analysis of the protest campaigns and policymaking practices that have marked British aviation since the construction of Heathrow Airport. Grounded in documentary analysis, interviews and policy texts, it constructs and employs poststructuralist policy analysis to delineate the rival rhetorical and discursive strategies articulated by the coalitions seeking to shape public policy.

Focusing on attempts by New Labour to engineer an acceptable policy of ‘sustainable aviation’, the book explores its transformation into a ‘wicked policy issue’ that defies a rational and equitable policy solution. It details the challenges posed to government by the rhetoric of scientific discourse and expert knowledge, and how the campaign against the third runway at Heathrow turned local residents, the perpetual ‘losers’ of aviation expansion, into apparent ‘winners’. It concludes by evaluating the challenges facing environmentalists and government in the face of concerted pressures from the aviation industry to expand.

This book will appeal to scholars and researchers of environmental policy and politics, poststructuralist political theory, social movements, and transport studies.

Promises and pitfalls

This edited volume examines how and under which conditions foreign policy analysis can be enriched by “domestic realm” public policy approaches, concepts, and theories. Public policy scholars dealing with the analysis of domestic policy fields, such as social and economic policy, interior affairs, or environmental policy, use a broad array of heuristics, concepts, and theories, including, for example, multiple streams, advocacy coalition or punctuated equilibrium approaches. However, the possible contribution of such approaches to the analysis of foreign policy has yet to be fully explored. With this purpose in mind, this edited volume devotes a chapter each on a selection of arguably the most important domestic public policy approaches and examines their transferability and adaptability to foreign policy analysis. Thereby the book points out how bridging the intra-disciplinary divide between the analysis of public policy and foreign policy can enrich foreign policy studies and shows how exactly foreign policy analysis can benefit from broadening its instruments for analysis. The edited volume also discusses under what conditions such a transfer is less promising due to the “sui generis” character of foreign policy.

Abstract only
Nikki Ikani

probing how global change is spurring a qualitative transformation of the European Union, it provides a pragmatic and specific framework to unpack the process by which the decision to change foreign policy is made during specific crisis episodes. How do crises in EU foreign policy produce policy changes, and why? The key goal of this book is to improve our understanding of EU foreign policy change, how it happens and what it looks like. To achieve this, this book will develop an analytical framework and a typology of change suitable for this task

in Crisis and change in European Union foreign policy