Gendering the policyprocess: venue shopping and
The previous chapter identified significant variation both across countries and also
within states in the attention paid to gender concerns in skilled immigration selection policies. In particular, I found that Canada ranked higher than Australia for
the gender awareness of its skilled immigration policy, although Canada’s ranking has been dropping in recent years. Australia, while always ranking lower than
Canada, has also fallen in its gender ranking over time (see Table 2
A policyprocess approach
to the poor laws
The curtailment of Ann Dunster’s outdoor relief mirrors the experiences of many other claimants after the late eighteenth century when
relief provision became subject to different rules and expectations.
Foregrounding the experiences of relief recipients has, however, only
been a recent trend in poor law studies. The first section of this chapter outlines the recent trend in welfare history to examine the ‘welfare process’; that is, the process by which people negotiated welfare
provision, and the agency of those
template for evaluating the effectiveness of reform, and that facilitates the identification of domestic and EU-level causal factors. The study should therefore provide a clear picture of how EU membership may give rise to largely hidden, but potentially transformative, pressures for change within national policy-making processes. The following three chapters employ this framework in order to address the first research question posed in the introduction: how was the national EU policyprocess adapted by Blair and Ahern in an attempt to project policy preferences more
Whether called pressure groups, NGOs, social movement organisations or organised civil society, the value of ‘groups’ to the policy process, to economic growth, to governance, to political representation and to democracy has always been contested. However, there seems to be a contemporary resurgence in this debate, largely centred on their democratising potential: can groups effectively link citizens to political institutions and policy processes? Are groups an antidote to emerging democratic deficits? Or do they themselves face challenges in demonstrating their legitimacy and representativeness? This book debates the democratic potential and practice of groups, focusing on the vibrancy of internal democracies, and modes of accountability with those who join such groups and to the constituencies they advocate for. It draws on literatures covering national, European and global levels, and presents empirical material from the UK and Australia.
assistants. This book was primarily concerned with the mechanisms
at the heart of this system, those moments when the cogs and pistons
creating, developing and implementing policies were in full motion.
By applying a policyprocess understanding of policy to the literature on the poor laws, it became clear that many aspects of poor law
administration had yet to receive systematic examination. Thereafter, the
adoption of the policyprocess approach has enabled me to undertake a
detailed examination of the different stages associated with the development, adoption and
Pauper Policies examines how policies under both old and New Poor Laws were conceived, adopted, implemented, developed or abandoned. The author engages with recent literature on the experience and agency of poor relief recipients, and offers a fresh perspective on poor law administration. Through a ‘policy process’ approach, the author exposes several significant topics in poor law history which are currently unknown or poorly understood, each of which are explored in a series of thematic chapters. It contains important new research on the adoption and implementation of enabling acts at the end of the old poor laws, Gilbert’s Act of 1782 and Sturges Bourne’s Acts of 1818 and 1819; the exchange of knowledge about how best to provide poor relief in the final decades of the old poor law and formative decades of the New; and the impact of national scandals on policy-making in the new Victorian system. The volume points towards a new direction in the study of poor law administration, one which examines how people, both those in positions of power and the poor, could shape pauper policies. It is essential reading for anyone with an interest in welfare, poverty and society in eighteenth and nineteenth-century England, as well as those who want to understand the early workings of the welfare system.
implementers of state policy.
In combination, the three narratives paint a picture of the modern-day Norwegian municipality as a fragmented organization, and of municipal policy development as a process caught in the tension between government and governance, organizational hierarchies and “flattened” networked steering and, also, between the autonomy of local government and state control. In this and the following chapters, I examine the relevance of these interrelated descriptions and tensions through empirical descriptions of municipal policyprocesses
the labour migration policy.
Ideas in political science
Ideas have become a key focus in attempts to explain policies and policy
change (Blyth 1997; Hay 2004; Schmidt and Radaelli 2004; Cairney
2009), but there remains significant disagreement about their explanatory or causal power. Political science, as a relatively broad church, has
naturally produced a range of conceptualisations about the ways in
which knowledge plays a role in the policyprocess (see Radaelli 1995),
and connected to this, about the explanatory power of ideas – or ‘ideas
about ideas’ (Schmidt
policies and through the
presentation of gender-disaggregated data. In the final section, I examine differences in policyprocesses in the two countries, in particular the greater degree
of bureaucratic control exercised in Australia and the heightened role played by
diversity-seeking groups in the policyprocess in Canada.
New selection grids
The policy context in Australia
Following the FitzGerald Inquiry in 1988, a Skilled-Independent category
was introduced for skilled immigration admission into Australia. In its structure, it most closely approximated a points
In the global race for skilled immigrants, governments compete for workers. In pursuing such individuals, governments may incidentally discriminate on gender grounds. Existing gendered differences in the global labour market related to life course trajectories, pay gaps and occupational specialisation are refracted in skilled immigration selection policies. This book analyses the gendered terrain of skilled immigration policies across 12 countries and 37 skilled immigration visas. It argues that while skilled immigration policies are often gendered, this outcome is not inevitable and that governments possess scope in policy design. Further, the book explains the reasons why governments adopt more or less gender aware skilled immigration policies, drawing attention to the engagement of feminist groups and ethnocultural organisations in the policy process. In doing so, it utilises evidence from 128 elite interviews undertaken with representatives of these organisations, as well as government officials, parliamentarians, trade unions and business associations in Australia and Canada over the period 1988 through to 2013. Presenting the first book-length account of the global race for talent from a gender perspective, Gender, migration and the global race for talent will be read by graduate students, researchers, policy-makers and practitioners in the fields of immigration studies, political science, public policy, sociology, gender studies and Australian and Canadian studies.