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Derek Birrell

11 Policy-making under direct rule What has been the impact of direct rule on policy-making and policy outcomes? In assessing this, there are a number of significant contexts. Firstly, direct rule administrations have come from both Labour and Conservative Governments and this can account for the content of some policies and changes in policy (see Table 11.1). Secondly, policy decisions under direct rule covered both transferred matters and reserved/excepted matters and at times Governments treated policy as a unified entity. In some areas such as equality

in Direct rule and the governance of Northern Ireland
Raymond Hinnebusch

It is frequently claimed that foreign policy making in Middle East states is either the idiosyncratic product of personalistic dictators or the irrational outcome of domestic instability. In fact, it can only be adequately understood by analysis of the multiple factors common to all states, namely: (1) foreign policy determinants (interests, challenges) to which decision-makers respond when they shape policies; and (2) foreign policy structures and processes which factor the ‘inputs’ made by various actors into a policy addressing these

in The international politics of the Middle East
Simon Bulmer and Martin Burch

9780719055157_4_003.qxd 20/3/09 12:06 PM Page 34 3 The EU framework for UK policy-making The purpose of this chapter is to offer a review of the EU framework within which UK central government operates. This EU framework is important for a range of reasons, but most centrally because it is the main source of Europeanisation effects. There are other sources of Europeanisation, such as the separate, Strasbourg-based Council of Europe, but we have excluded them from our study. Europeanisation and European policy are also closely bound up with a series of

in The Europeanisation of Whitehall
Arantza Gomez Arana

3 European Union policy-making towards Mercosur Introduction The EU is not a state and is not a traditional international organization. It is common to characterize it as a hybrid system with a federal component, but nothing comparable exists at this point in time. To understand EU policy-making towards Mercosur it is important to understand the internal system of the EU, its internal policy-making and the internal system of Mercosur, particularly given that Mercosur has tried to replicate the institutional design of the EU. Since its creation in 1957 in the

in The European Union's policy towards Mercosur:
Chris Duke, Michael Osborne and Bruce Wilson

12 Regions, central government power and policy-making Central policies and vertical authority The engagement of regions with local higher education institutions implies that those responsible for regional administration have the will and ability to choose partnership. The reality of government power however is such that the degrees of freedom to make and sustain collaborative arrangements are often severely limited: circumscribed by attitudes and policies, political and bureaucratic practices that prevent and frustrate. On the other hand central government can

in A new imperative
Bernadette Connaughton

. As well as having transnational impact, the EU environmental policy has consequences for each level of government in Europe – national, regional and local – through its implementation. In theory the institutional architecture of the EU implies a very clear-cut separation between policy making and implementation activities whereby member states are primarily responsible for ensuring the translation and effective compliance with directives. In practice the interrelationships and interactions that arise in a system of multi-level governance presents a multifaceted

in The implementation of environmental policy in Ireland
Alex Balch

6 The EU and labour migration policy-making in the UK and Spain Introduction The key questions this chapter tackles are to what extent the EU impacts on debate over policy at the national level, how this impact is mediated by domestic structures and what kinds of effects it has. In order to answer these questions, the chapter first considers what might be meant by the Europeanisation of immigration policy. This is then followed by a brief analysis of the emerging EU migration regime before the impact of the EU on national policy-making in the UK and Spain is

in Managing labour migration in Europe
M. Anne Visser and Sheryl-Ann Simpson

opportunities for social and political participation. Hazleton was just one of dozens of cities that proposed or enacted LRs in and around 2006, a period of increased immigration policy making activity for local governments around the US. In this chapter we examine the increased activity of municipal, county, and US state governments through the analysis of a unique database of over 3,000 LRs passed from 1980 to 2014 (Visser, 2017 ). We examine the character, timing, and location of policy adoption, and compare patterns between these scales. While

in Sanctuary cities and urban struggles
Samantha Newbery

, and agreed that the time had come to introduce internment. 28 This policy-making process and the extent to which the impetus came from London or from Belfast have been analysed at length elsewhere. 29 None the less, the key reasons for internment can be identified, and doing so helps explain how the ‘five techniques’ came to be used in Northern Ireland. There is no evidence that collecting intelligence by using the

in Interrogation, intelligence and security

This text aims to fill a gap in the field of Middle Eastern political studies by combining international relations theory with concrete case studies. It begins with an overview of the rules and features of the Middle East regional system—the arena in which the local states, including Egypt, Turkey, Iran, Israel and the Arab states of Syria, Jordan and Iraq, operate. The book goes on to analyse foreign-policy-making in key states, illustrating how systemic determinants constrain this policy-making, and how these constraints are dealt with in distinctive ways depending on the particular domestic features of the individual states. Finally, it goes on to look at the outcomes of state policies by examining several major conflicts including the Arab-Israeli conflict and the Gulf War, and the system of regional alignment. The study assesses the impact of international penetration in the region, including the historic reasons behind the formation of the regional state system. It also analyses the continued role of external great powers, such as the United States and the former Soviet Union, and explains the process by which the region has become incorporated into the global capitalist market.