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The Franks and the world of the early middle ages
Editors: Paul Fouracre and David Ganz

This volume of essays in honour of Dame Jinty Nelson celebrates the way in which Jinty has used her profound understanding of Frankish history as a frame for reflecting upon the nature of early medieval culture and society in general. It includes a tabula gratulatoria of those very many others who wish to express their appreciation of Jinty's work and their warm personal gratitude to her. She has remained at King's throughout her entire career. Her early career was combined with young motherhood, a tough experience that has made her strongly supportive of colleagues trying to balance work and family. Although she continued to write about early medieval inauguration rituals, a new departure came with the 1977 paper 'On the limits of the Carolingian Renaissance'. The book discusses what factors determined and informed their particular take on the Frankish world, and how this compares to law-codes and charters. It considers the possibility that land was sometimes taken in early medieval Europe, whether by kings or local lords, for what they claimed was the common good. Whenever only meagre information was available, it was impossible to make sense of the past, that is, to take a prosaic approach to a sense of oblivion. The book explores both the roots of the historical interpretation and the stimuli for change, by considering the long historiographical tradition, attitudes to textual sources, and the changing political environment. The subjects of queens and queenship have figured prominently among Nelson's publications.

Bert Ingelaere

-Christian and Western perspective the latter is the truth and the former a lie. 12 But in the Rwandan context, the moral value of a word depends on its usefulness in a complex socio-political environment. In addition, communication (speaking) and non-communication (silence) operated in a similar dialectical scheme. A first element in this code is the dialectic of speech and silence. Kumenya Kinyarwanda or ‘speaking (knowing) Kinyarwanda’ means at least two things: on the one hand it refers to the ability to speak the language (the common understanding of mastering a

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
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A black rebel with a cause
Azzedine Haddour

avenues of escape from his blackness. As we will see in Chapter 2, the gaze of the white (child) exposes Fanon and proves to be devastating: it shatters the schema of his corporeality. Between the First and Second World Wars, West Indian and African students studying in Paris were immersed in a highly stimulating intellectual and political environment. These students came into contact with the writers of the New Negro movement. At the time, the phenomenon of expatriation was a source of creativity for hitherto fettered black American artists. France was a very

in Frantz Fanon, postcolonialism and the ethics of difference
David Evans

’ (McIlroy, 1995: 2). It follows that as society evolves, the landscape trade unions inhabit changes and the pressures and influences on unions are manifested in different ways. Breakaway trade unions in an era of neoliberalism Therefore, any theory of trade-union organisation cannot be divorced from the dynamic economic, legal and political environments in which unions are embedded (Musson, 1974: 1). As Gramsci put it, ‘the trade union is not a predetermined phenomenon. It becomes a determinate institution; it takes on a definite historical form to the extent that the

in Labour united and divided from the 1830s to the present
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The impact of political climate and historiographical tradition on writing their ninth-century history
Wendy Davies

for change, by considering the long historiographical tradition, attitudes to textual sources, and the changing political environment. The historiographical tradition Let me begin with the historiographical tradition. La Borderie was not the first to utter the nationalist sentiments of the late nineteenth century, for he wrote within an already existing interpretative framework

in Frankland
Past, present, and future
Matthias Maass

6 The story of small state survival: past, present, and future Over more than three-and-a-half centuries, the fate of small states has depended primarily on the states system. Since the Peace of Westphalia, the starting point for this study, the survival rate of small states has been shaped largely by the international political environment of the time. Small state survival, understood as the net outcome of state creation and state existence minus state termination, is historically determined to a large extent by the overall systemic structure. In short, small

in Small states in world politics
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Sally Mayall Brasher

Chapter 1 locates the rise of the hospital movement in northern Italy within the context of the changing religious, social, and political environment of the city-states. It traces the evolution of the ideas of charity and poverty from the early to high Middle Ages suggesting that a fundamental shift occurred in both the mechanisms of collecting and distributing charity, and in the perception of poverty and need. The chapter introduces the hospital's central function in this distribution and administration of charity and illustrates how the hospital and other charitable

in Hospitals and charity
Katherine Fierlbeck

description of the institutions and processes required for an appropriate degree of accountability to be maintained over time, has been successful largely because of its ability to accommodate a wide range of interests within a relatively stable political environment. But proof that accountability exists is more difficult to gauge; and it rests both in the active ability of some to choose by whom they wish

in Globalizing democracy
The impact of the ‘Orange Revolution’ on EU–Ukraine relations
Rosaria Puglisi

transformed political environment in Ukraine (opportunity). The ‘Revolution’ changed not only expectations among Ukrainians, making ordinary citizens as well as the new leadership more self-aware of their European identity, but also the whole Ukrainian discourse on European integration. At least in the first few months of the new administration, the coming to power of a political elite genuinely committed to

in The security dimensions of EU enlargement
Dana M. Williams

concentration of anarchist organizations? Is there a legal right to organize trade unions (since many organizations from the Anarchist Yellow Pages described in Chapter 3 are syndicalist) or engage in strikes? Does a country have broad media freedoms?4 Which countries were previously, or are currently, in a state of “light repression” or “heavy repression” against political dissenters? ANTI-STATE POLITICAL OPPORTUNITIES 119 We can assess some of these elements by using a number of measures for the broader political environment of countries with anarchist organization

in Black flags and social movements