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Author: Niilo Kauppi

There has been a lot of talk about the European Union's so-called 'democratic deficit', by which is meant its lack of legitimacy in the eyes of its citizens. This book provides a critical analysis of the democratic stalemate in European politics. It argues that the root of the 'democratic deficit' has more to do with the domestic political fields of the Union's member-states and the structure of the evolving European political field than with the relationships between supranational institutions. The book analyses the complex ways 'Europe' is integrated into domestic politics and shows how domestic political fields and cultures have prevented deepening integration. As a result of the formation of a European political field, political resources in European 'postnational' and 'postabsolutist' polities are being redistributed. The theory of structural constructivism proposed fuses French structural theories of politics and a 'bottom-up' approach to European integration. The book examines the relationship between French political traditions and the construction of a European security structure from the point of view of identity politics and the French post-imperialist syndrome. The educational and social homogeneity of French civil servants provides a political resource that certain individuals can use in Brussels, influencing the direction and form of European integration. Studying legislative legitimacy in the European Parliament elections, the book highlights that intellectuals are important players in French politics: the politics of the street has always been a key part of French political life.

Mary A. Procida

men who gradually emerged as the main obstacle to Anglo-Indian women’s continued exercise of imperial political power. As the Ilbert Bill controversy of 1883 and, later, the interwar policies of Indianization revealed, Indian men, with the support of the British, were gradually moving into positions of authority in the Raj. The nationalist movement further demonstrated that

in Married to the empire
Niilo Kauppi

2 A structural constructivist theory of politics and of European integration In this chapter, I explore in detail structural constructivism as a theory of European integration. By structural constructivism I refer to a mostly French research tradition that develops some of Pierre Bourdieu's theoretical tools (Bourdieu 1989, 14-25; Ansart 1990; Katshanov and Shmatko 1996, 90-104; Kauppi 1996, 53-68, 2000). Bourdieu's structural constructivist theory of politics offers powerful instruments for a critical analysis of political power. In European studies, the theory

in Democracy, social resources and political power in the European Union
Contemporary ‘British’ cinema and the nation’s monarchs
Andrew Higson

precisely the fate of the late modern monarchs on film: they are ceremonial monarchs who merely reign, whose actions are limited by constitution and convention, whose political power is severely circumscribed. These are monarchs, then, who accede executive power to the elected politicians, the prime minister and the government. Obliged by constitutional law to stand above politics, their power is thereby

in The British monarchy on screen
Abstract only
Niilo Kauppi

processes. First, there is a supranational and national monopolisation of political power by European political and bureaucratic agents and national executive political agents, who form strategic alliances. Second, there is the establishment of shared political institutions, such as the European Parliament, and of networks linking local, regional, national and supranational levels. These processes are accompanied by collective symbolic constructions of Europe by political groups and enterprises. I demonstrate here that in order to understand the concrete effects and

in Democracy, social resources and political power in the European Union
Niilo Kauppi

the Eurosphere. A second group consists of the variety of domestic political agents who deal with 6 Democracy, social resources and political power in the European Union European Union affairs on either a full- or part-time basis. These politicians range from national ministers to civil servants having competence in European issues. Sidjanski's third group is more heterogeneous than the first two. It includes representatives of multinational companies stationed in Brussels, lobbyists, lawyers, consultants on European issues, and so on. In the fourth group

in Democracy, social resources and political power in the European Union
Niilo Kauppi

all, on France. (De Gaulle 1970, 88) France is our fatherland, Europe is our future. (François Mitterrand, quoted in Delors 1988, 269) 52 Democracy, social resources and political power in the European Union The fragile dynamic between nationalism and supranationalism discussed in Chapter 1 is both the source of and a major impediment to further European political and economic integration. For France, whose political executives have constantly wavered between de Gaulle's minimalism (a Europe of nation-states) and Mitterrand's maximalism (a Commission with more

in Democracy, social resources and political power in the European Union
Niilo Kauppi

political ethos of the Republic is closely tied to the global triumph of neoliberal economic doctrine. In Finland, a country that joined the European Union in 1995, the effects of European Parliament elections on domestic politics are significant. Seen from the point of view of politicians, it adds sixteen (after 2004, fourteen) elective 118 Democracy, social resources and political power in the European Union posts to the existing 200 seats in the national parliament, and has led to the creation of a new type of politician, the Member of the European Parliament (MEP

in Democracy, social resources and political power in the European Union
Niilo Kauppi

elections was 51.1 per cent, compared to 21.6 per cent in regional elections in 1986, 31.3 per cent in regional elections in 1992 and 29.8 per cent in municipal elections in 1992 90 Democracy, social resources and political power in the European Union (Safran 1995, 100). Paradoxically, the abstention rate has been going up as the powers of the European Parliament have increased. The Parliament has more power but fewer links with the citizens. Despite the relatively high level of abstention, European elections are now an integral part of French national politics, at

in Democracy, social resources and political power in the European Union
Niilo Kauppi

relatively new sector is composed of the institutions dealing with the European Union, in 68 Democracy, social resources and political power in the European Union which administrative, economic and political questions are combined. The emergence of the European political field has partly accelerated the disappearance of the division between politics and administration. Because of the openness of the European Union institutions, it is not unusual for a highly-placed civil servant who has close connections to former classmates from the ENA to engage for some time in a

in Democracy, social resources and political power in the European Union