Whether called pressure groups, NGOs, social movement organisations or organised civil society, the value of ‘groups’ to the policy process, to economic growth, to governance, to political representation and to democracy has always been contested. However, there seems to be a contemporary resurgence in this debate, largely centred on their democratising potential: can groups effectively link citizens to political institutions and policy processes? Are groups an antidote to emerging democratic deficits? Or do they themselves face challenges in demonstrating their legitimacy and representativeness? This book debates the democratic potential and practice of groups, focusing on the vibrancy of internal democracies, and modes of accountability with those who join such groups and to the constituencies they advocate for. It draws on literatures covering national, European and global levels, and presents empirical material from the UK and Australia.
Representational democracy is at the heart of the UK’s political constitution, and the electoral system is central to achieving it. But is the first-past-the-post system used to elect the UK parliament truly representative? To answer that question requires an understanding of several factors: debates over the nature of representation; the evolution of the current electoral system; how first-past-the-post distorts electoral politics; and how else elections might be conducted. Running through all these debates are issues over the representation not only of people but also of places. The book examines all of these issues and focuses on the effect of geography on the operation of the electoral system.
Staff Commission has a general duty to enhance local government but
its existence reflected both the limited size of local government and
continuing government concern with fair employment practices.
Politics and local government
Throughout the operation of direct rule local government functioned
as a major forum for the expression of the views of the electorate and
local government was the major platform for local politicalrepresentation outside the Westminster Parliament. Despite local government
operating with limited functions its political role was important
, while ethnographers located them in typological descriptions: ‘the Emberá are like that’, as if the Emberá have always been
the same. In this respect, the mystical image of the Emberá with the loincloth or
the paruma, hides from view the possibility that Emberá life had always embraced
change. As we are about to see, the Emberá would soon modernise their wardrobe
and reorganise their politicalrepresentation, only to rediscover their ‘traditional’
clothes once more.
Episode two: resettling in concentrated communities
The next episode in my story of Emberá clothes
Livestock statistics and expertise in the late nineteenth-century Cape Colony, 1850-1900
information and, as such, statistical information
went hand in hand with political authority. Statistics on livestock and
crop production were at the centre of debates on livestock disease
legislation, the development of the railway network and even the nature
of politicalrepresentation in the Cape. 17 Statistics formed the basis of
‘true knowledge’, which, so far as they were concerned, was
not always vary positively with levels of
democratic practice. I suggest instead that technologies of rule that enable
concerns for social welfare can exist quite independently of European-derived
ideas and institutions of politicalrepresentation and government administration.
Could these non-European practices suggest ways to approach social welfare
challenges beyond the specific case of China, which is the main subject of this
Bayly 04_Tonra 01 21/06/2011 10:20 Page 104
History, historians and development policy
chapter? If so, our textbook understanding
is finished. It’s over. Some say that the party can still be changed,
but Labour can’t be changed. Maybe there will have to be a new political party for workers’ sometime down the road … Let’s go ahead with a
People’s Charter and win over the hearts and minds of workers to ensure
better politicalrepresentation for our class.25
The beginning of this new political formation was the founding of the
No2EU electoral alliance in early 2009. Its slogan in the 2009 European
elections was ‘Yes to democracy’, but it changed to ‘Yes to workers’ rights’
in the 2014 European
those championing politicalrepresentation for
To these veterans of the ‘Bulgarian
atrocities’ agitation, and those fresh from recent campaigns
over the Ottoman treatment of Christians in Armenia and Crete, the
memory of Gladstone was never far away, his reputation as an icon of
liberal internationalism soon to be sealed by Morley’s
Simone de Beauvoir and a Global Theory of Feminist Recognition
-dimensional analysis of gender injustices,
including symbolic misrecognition, resource scarcity and lack of
politicalrepresentation. In spite of her rejection of the label,
she suggests cosmopolitan hope for diverse women's engagement as
agents of their own needs and rights.
While such aims are clearly
noteworthy, certain blind spots in Fraser's formulation of
Identity is often regarded as something that is possessed by individuals, states, and other agents. In this edited collection, identity is explored across a range of approaches and under-explored case studies with a view to making visible its fractured, contingent, and dynamic features. The book brings together themes of belonging and exclusion, identity formation and fragmentation. It also examines how identity functions in discourse, and the effects it produces, both materially and in ideational terms. Taking in case studies from Asia-Pacific, Europe, the Middle East and Latin America, the various chapters interrogate identity through formal governing mechanisms, popular culture and place. These studies demonstrate the complex and fluid nature of identity and identity practices, as well as implications for theorising identity.