Throughout its brief history, photography has had a close relationship to social movements. From the Commune of Paris in 1871, the first political uprising to be captured by camera, to the 1990s anti-globalisation movement, the photographic medium has played a crucial role in political struggles. The book reflects critically on the theory of photography and the social movements themselves. It draws on a range of humanities disciplines, including photography theory and history, social movement theory, political theory, cultural history, visual culture, media studies and the history and theory of art. The book takes as a starting point 1968 - a year that witnessed an explosion of social movements worldwide and has been interpreted as a turning point for political practice and theory. The finishing point is 2001 - a signpost for international politics due to September 11 and a significant year for the movement because of the large-scale anti-capitalist protests in Genoa. Within these chronological limits, the book focuses on a selection of distinctive instances in which the photographic medium intersects with the political struggle. The three case studies are not the only pertinent examples, by any means, but they are important ones, not only historically and politically, but also iconographically. They are the student and worker uprising in France in May 1968 and two moments of the contemporary anti-capitalist movement, the indigenous Zapatista movement in Mexico and the anti-capitalist protests in Genoa in 2001.
. If humanitarian
certainties have been upended, it is not in Sri Lanka, or even Syria or Afghanistan, but in the
NGO response to the migration crisis in Greece and in the Mediterranean. For here, whether they
like it or not, when they rescue people at sea who are trying to get to Europe, relief NGOs are
involved not just in caritative work, whose deontology is relatively straightforward ethically;
here, they are important actors in a profound politicalstruggle, whose outcome, along with the
response or non-response to climate change, is likely to
space of encounter between praxis, critique and truth – a place that sustains an open and reflective encounter between art and the totalising critique of capitalism.’ 28 In the words of the organisers, who are equally concerned with collective objectification and intellectual labour, ‘artist organizations bring forward a social/political agenda that connects the fields of ethics and aesthetics. Rather than a medium merely “questioning” and “confronting” the world, the artist organisation situates itself in the field of daily politicalstruggle.’ 29 Neither a
their interconnectedness, these two concepts enable analysis of a central tension in the examples of politicalstruggle and the policy processes investigated: that is, the tension between adherence to the hierarchical command chain of the municipal organization and alternative alliances found both within and beyond the formal municipal organization.
Tales of municipal entrepreneurship, understood as political strategies at play among local politicians and municipal administrators in their efforts to develop and implement new policy initiatives, are
politicalstruggle during policy processes. Second, while demonstrating how both political and administrative actors can become the prime movers of policy processes, they also show how successful “municipal entrepreneurship” depends on a dialectic relationship between the two roles. Third, and most importantly concerning the ambition of exploring the relationship between government and governance (see the discussion in Chapter 2 ), the two cases both display how internal and external relations (and resources) are tightly interwoven during policy processes, and how
h r o u g h o u t its brief history, photography has had a close relationship
to social movements. From the Commune of Paris in 1871, the first political
uprising to be captured by camera, to the 1990s anti-globalisation movement, the
photographic medium has played a crucial role in politicalstruggles.1 The camera’s
presence at very important moments of political resistance resulted in some of the
best-known photographs in the history of twentieth-century photography. Some
of these photographs transcended the historical and geographical
leisure with a communist one. Finally, in communist hands, leisure was regarded
as an aspect of the wider communist politicalstruggle. Communist political
values would be affirmed through leisure, while the Party and YCL would pursue
wider political goals through leisure activities. In a similar register, recruits to the
various organs of the Party absorbed communist values and models of behaviour
through their participation in communist leisure.
Communist recruits enjoyed Party and YCL-run recreational activities almost
In this chapter, I will describe this volume's understanding of how municipal policy development unfolds by exploring the strategies and tactics at play during controversial policy developments. In doing so, the analytical focus shifts from Bailey's concept of normative rules to the more pragmatic rules of politicalstruggle. However, as previously indicated, this chapter also entails an important departure from Bailey's classical description of politicalstruggle ( 1969 ), as I argue for a contrast between Bailey's descriptions of leader
may have been encountered by many Irish people when learning history, but
few appear to be familiar with their intellectual legacies and how their ideas
have influenced and been used (and abused) in various politicalstruggles.
‘Fighting words’, such as patriarchy, alienation and institutionalised racism,
may be familiar, but possibly encountered in distorted or diluted forms,
and emptied of their original subversive purpose. The volume thus seeks
to counter the speedy and superficial fast-food style of reading, which is
increasingly a feature of academic
in relation to politicalstruggle, via Cabral; and in relation to both, via
the films of Flora Gomes. In Diawara’s book African Cinema:
Politics and Culture , the Return to the Source is one of the three
(variously problematic) categories taken to constitute contemporary African
filmmaking, the others being Social Realism and Colonial Confrontation.
Films in this category are concerned above all with