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The Protestant Orphan Society became a social bridge that linked together throughout the Church of Ireland the humble poor and the wealthy and the great. This book examines the work of the Protestant Orphan Society in Dublin (DPOS) against the background of over a century of political, religious and social upheaval from Catholic emancipation, the Great Famine, social reforms to Independence. It first identifies the founders and supporters of the DPOS and their motivation for doing so. It asks why the Church of Ireland invested in the children of the church at this time. The book then analyses the Society's development, the grounds for support of private versus public poor relief for Protestant widows and children and stresses the crucial role that women played in the Societies' work. It examines the child welfare system implemented by the DPOS, and the extent to which its policies were forward thinking and child and family centred. The opposing views of the extensive social service carried out by PO Societies and the meaning of the charity for the Church of Ireland laity, particularly women, are explored. The book further examines applicant profiles, widows' reduced circumstances and health, attitudes to children's health, and bereavement and the attendant emotional effects. Using individual case histories the chapter examines applicant case histories which include Sean O'Casey's sister.

Supernatural generation and the limits of power in Shakespeare’s Richard III

, Scene 1, in the context of burgeoning national instability, we might ask if even the existence of the baby's finger and the sow's blood is attributable to the political upheaval of Macbeth's unnatural rule. In the final balance, of course, Macduff, himself the result of an unnatural, though medical , birth, overcomes the supernatural generations associated with Macbeth and replaces them with legitimate, fairly formed sovereignty. Macbeth's reliance on the supernatural brings about his downfall, just as a village witch might do harm but will

in Shakespeare and the supernatural
The Ocean group in East and Southeast Asia, c. 1945–73

rim, notwithstanding political upheaval throughout the region. Despite the declining China trade, the Holts loading line in the 1950s extended over more than thirty ports in booming East and Southeast Asia, as well as Australia. 75 In defending its key position on these Europe–Asia–Pacific routes, Ocean executives had to surmount a number of difficulties, but often these threats did not derive

in The empire in one city?
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A colonial world

suggests that the changing treatment of Christians in nineteenth-century Sichuan was a side effect of the demographic and political upheavals brought about by Qing colonisation of the province in the previous century and of the way that foreign influence was drawn into local conflicts. But the really striking corrective that emerges from these studies concerns the identity of the imperial communities themselves. A superficial knowledge of China’s encounter with the West might lead us to expect that the imperial communities which were

in New frontiers

order to convey a sense of the political upheavals on the colonial periphery reverberating inwards on metropolitan society. 1 Implosion is a dramatic word. It means ‘bursting inwards’. It conjures up parts of the anatomy, like the appendix; or what happens to a vacuum flask when its skin is damaged. It is something which happens rapidly, dramatically, and indeed painfully. Perhaps there were

in British culture and the end of empire
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his initial success gave way to a period of significant political upheaval and personal loss. Andreev’s life was turned upside down by the deaths of both his youngest sister and his wife, while his works began to reflect his own political ruminations, if not vacillations. This chapter concentrates on the ways in which madness interacts with Andreev’s personal and fictional narratives of loss and rebellion. The central focus is the period 1904–8, although many of the sections in this chapter are organized thematically rather than in strict chronological order

in Degeneration, decadence and disease in the Russian fin de siècle
From the ancien régime to Fernando VII

between the Altar and the Throne’ in the final years of the ancien régime, an alliance that was never free of rivalry. Only then can one fully appreciate the complexity of the ties that bound Spanish identity to Catholicism at the beginning of the Modern Age and the subsequent role of religion in the great political upheavals of the nineteenth century. Spain and the light of Trent Menéndez Pelayo famously declared that Spain was ‘the light of Trent’. Not only was the Hispanic monarchy of the Hapsburgs at the forefront of the fight against Lutheranism, it was also the

in Spanish identity in the age of nations

This chapter explores the medical environment of 1640s Ireland, particularly during the 1641 Rebellion. It uses the 1641 Depositions to explore how people understood reported sickness and disease. It also traces the experiences of a broad range of medics during a period of warfare and significant social and political upheaval. In doing so, it enables an important new perspective on medicine in Early Modern Ireland.

in Early Modern Ireland and the world of medicine
Colonial policing and the imperial endgame 1945–80

The Colonial Police Service was created in 1936 in order to standardise all imperial police forces and mould colonial policing to the British model. This book is the first comprehensive study of the colonial police and their complex role within Britain's long and turbulent process of decolonisation, a time characterised by political upheaval and colonial conflict. The emphasis is on policing conflict rather than the application of British law and crime-fighting in an imperial context. The overlapping between the Irish-colonial and Metropolitan-English policing models was noticeable throughout the British Empire. The policing of Canada where English and Irish styles of policing intermingled, in particular after 1867 when Canada became a nation in its own right with the passage of the British North America Act. Inadequate provisions for the localisation of gazetted officers within most colonies prior to independence led to many expatriates being asked to remain in situ. Post-war reform included the development of police special branches, responsible for both internal and external security. From the British Caribbean to the Middle East, the Mediterranean to British Colonial Africa and on to Southeast Asia, colonial police forces struggled with the unrest and conflict that stemmed from Britain's withdrawal from its empire. A considerable number of them never returned to Britain, settling predominantly in Kenya, South Africa, Australia and Canada. Policing the immediate postcolonial state relied on traditional colonial methods. The case of the Sierra Leone Police is revealing in a contemporary context.

1848 in Ireland

This book examines the events that led up to the 1848 rising and examines the reasons for its failure. It places the rising in the context of political changes outside Ireland, especially the links between the Irish nationalists and radicals and republicans in Britain, France, and North America. The book concludes that far from being foolish or pathetic, the men and women who led and supported the 1848 rising in Ireland were remarkable, both individually and collectively. 1848 is frequently referred to as ‘the year of revolutions’: a year when revolutionary fervour spread through most of Europe. It is generally assumed that Ireland was not involved in the political upheavals that were a hallmark of this period. Although a small uprising did take place in Ireland in July 1848, it is widely assumed to have been a ‘small and ill-conceived rising’. As soon as it was over, the British government was characterizing the rising and its leaders as foolish and pathetic. The book argues that despite the failure of the July rising in Ireland, the events that led to it and followed played a crucial part in the development of modern Irish nationalism. Moreover, far from being a feeble challenge to the authority of the British government, for months the authorities were introducing measures to deal with what they perceived to be an enormous challenge: their tactics ranging from swearing in thousands of Special Constables, to jury-packing, to suspending Habeas Corpus.