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This book provides an introduction to how the Länder (the sixteen states of Germany) function, not only within the country itself, but also within the wider context of Europe's political affairs. It looks at the Länder in the constitutional order of the country, as well as their political and administrative systems, and also discusses their organisation and administration, together with their financial administration. Finally, the book looks at the role of political parties and elections in the Länder, and considers the importance of their parliaments.

Open Access (free)
Brad Evans

progress, the more we increase our chances for collective annihilation. Indeed, despite the potential human benefits of technological advancement, the triumph of the technical over the poetic in political affairs undermines the role of human creativity. How many critical theorists still have to affirm the importance of arts and humanities to the promotion of peace? Theory and science are not objective: we produce the technologies we desire, which are over-coded with all manner of assumptions and prejudices. So, as the technological mind continues to produce war machines

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Megan Daigle
Sarah Martin
, and
Henri Myrttinen

, 2012 : 25). At the same time, it arguably averts a wider conversation about what threats aid workers actually face, who receives training or other support, and how to reduce risks across the aid sector. This is especially problematic when aid workers are engaging in ever more political work, intertwining humanitarian and peacebuilding work with development and political affairs in the famed ‘nexus’. One long-time aid worker described two scenarios where aid workers had

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
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The politics of apathy and disengagement in Difficult Daughters and Broken Verses
Maryam Mirza

the tensions that the idea and practice of protest politics can generate, particularly for women. But, as we will see, precisely because both Virmati and Aasmaani are shown to be in close proximity, emotional as well as physical, to women who are actively engaged in political affairs, especially Swarna in Difficult Daughters and Samina in Broken Verses , the two texts resist being read as

in Resistance and its discontents in South Asian women’s fiction
Historical romance, biography or Gothic fiction?
John Williams

Shelleys’ business and what was the world’s business is thus destabilized by a novel which fictionalizes historical accounts, appropriates the past as the present, projects a critique of Italian political affairs onto an English scenario (in the process subverting the fashionable form of Gothic romance), and enrols the author’s friends and neighbours in its cast list. In the end, readers cannot be sure if

in European Gothic
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William IV, affability and the reform crisis, 1830–37
Steve Poole

entertained that Collins was mad. The Court Journal, convinced that Collins had been driven insane through ‘habits of intemperance and vice’, was pleased to disassociate him from political affairs. But Cobbett disagreed. ‘Never was an act more deliberate in the whole world’, he wrote. ‘Here was premeditation, predetermination, everything proving that the malice was prepense; and all this proves to demonstration the absence of insanity.’ The crime could therefore only be construed as high treason, wrote Cobbett, however uncomfortable ministers found it, but Collins’s ill

in The politics of regicide in England, 1760–1850
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A new history of photographic cultures in Egypt

The events of 25 January 2011 placed Egypt at the front and centre of discussions around radical transformations taking place in global photographic cultures. Yet Egypt and photography share a longer, richer history rarely included in Western histories of the medium. Decolonizing Images focuses on the local visual heritage of Egypt and, in doing so, continues the urgent process of decolonizing the canon of photography. Drawing on a wide range of historical and contemporary visual materials this book discovers the potential of photography as a decolonizing force. In diverse ways the medium has been used to influence political affairs, cultural life and reimaginings of Egypt in the transformation from a colony to a sovereign nation. Ronnie Close presents a new account of the visual cultures produced in and exhibited inside of Egypt by interpreting the camera’s ability to conceal as much as it reveals. He rethinks how the visual has constituted a distinct cultural sensibility on its own terms. This book moves from the initial encounters between local knowledge and Western-led modernity to explore how the image intersects with issues of representation, censorship, activism and art photography. The image disseminates knowledge from the specificity of its time but retains a singular property of its own creative expression that is more than the sum of its parts. Close overturns Eurocentric understandings of the photograph through a compelling narrative on this indigenous visual culture in a complex vision of decolonial difference in contemporary Egypt.

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Conquering the maharajas
Harrison Akins

The introduction presents the main ideas, arguments and justification for the study. After stressing the importance of the topic under study, this chapter first presents two key ideas for underpinning the book’s argument: the clashing visions of state sovereignty within South Asia and the princely states as emblematic of the British use of indirect rule. Within India’s princely states, the British government instituted a suzerain system of governance in which princes held nominal independence and the political autonomy to handle their internal political affairs, yet maintained an allegiance to an overarching imperial power. This created a political system that shaped the interests of the princes and other political elites who benefited from it. The elites’ privileges and status, therefore, were bound up with the perpetuation of the political system granting them asymmetric access to power, especially in the face of non-elites challenging a political status quo from which they derived few benefits. The princes thus remained resistant to broader political reforms that could undermine their authority, a position that was frequently supported and encouraged by the British government’s policies and rhetoric. As a result, several princes contested the sovereignty of both the Indian and Pakistani governments within their states and attempted to assert their independence to preserve their state’s political autonomy and their personal status. The introduction concludes with a description of the contributions of the study and how the book is structured, including an explanation of the four case studies used within the book.

in Conquering the maharajas

Civil rights, Great Society, Vietnam: these words, correctly, dominate our understanding of the Presidency of Lyndon Baines Johnson. Popular memory identifies Johnson as the President who sponsored historic and successful civil rights laws, and who advanced a wider and very ambitious, if ultimately flawed, programme of domestic reform. Part of the intention behind the chapters in this book is to take seriously the contention of leading foreign players from the Johnson Administration that its non-Vietnam policies in general, and its Soviet policy in particular, deserve reappraisal. The book should also be seen as a contribution to the 'beyond Vietnam' Johnson historiography which has emerged in recent years. It does seek to question the common opinion, expressed for example by Deborah Welch Larson: 'Johnson was too preoccupied with Vietnam to make a sustained effort to improve US-Soviet relations'. The chapters in the book do not ignore the Vietnam War. US-Soviet relations and American perceptions of the 'Soviet threat' were closely intertwined with America's conduct of the war, and two fairly long chapters of this book are devoted to Vietnam. The war profoundly affected both bilateral US-Soviet relations and superpower competition in other regions of the world. In a sense, the ending of the Cold War enables us to also put the Vietnam War into its international historical context.

U.S. Public Diplomacy and the Rebuilding of America’s Image Abroad

Going against the grain of much of the scholarship on "the 70s," therefore, this book presents an array of reasons for claiming that American culture enjoyed a curious renaissance precisely because its shortcomings were most apparent. The activism and radicalism of the "other America" resonated abroad and picked up admirers along the way, even if these (often youthful) admirers were not the standard "publics" sought out by public diplomacy campaigns. The book explores this environment along two tracks which give organizing shape to our narrative. Firstly, the problems of projection. How did American cultural and information officials approach their work in the new 1970s era of "fear, uncertainty, and doubt"? Secondly, the encounters at the receiving end. How were public diplomacy programs received in various parts of the world, each often undergoing their own historic convulsions? Thirdly, the fact that America's increasingly raucous social and political diversity produced unexpected results abroad. A fourth theme concerns the changing worldwide context. U.S. public diplomacy had always maintained a global conceit and a universalist ethos. Fifth, and central to the approach of this book, is the often unrecognized but crucial fact that both ends of the transmission and reception axis are important to understand the full dynamics of public diplomacy practise. The book closely calibrates American soft power to the hard power wielded by the United States, even in this period.