also political theorists, sociologists, and philosophers turned to friendship to reimagine citizenship and politicalcommunity. In Subtle Bodies , Ned and his college gang hope to ‘somehow generaliz[e]’ their friendship into a broader politics. In the next section of this Introduction, I show that, over the past four decades, there has been a far-reaching revival of critical interest in this very possibility.
Friendship, community, and liberalism’s ‘crisis of citizenship’
Joris – the cynical lawyer whom Ned has the most trouble convincing to sign his anti
in previous chapters – but of the connection between the themes of politicalcommunity, citizenship, and male friendship that the novel will explore (33).
Because Marny’s academic specialism is ‘American colonial history’, Robert is keen to have his old friend on board to ‘take the long view’ and to interpret their project in Detroit within a broader historical context (53). In Chapter 1 , I explored how Roth’s American Trilogy also took the ‘long view’ of American democracy, connecting the politics of the 1990s to a series of earlier periods in US history
Friendship: Katherine Philips
and Homoerotic Desire’, Studies in English Literature, 1500–1900, 46 (2006): 523–42
Andreadis, Harriette, ‘The Sapphic-Platonics of Katherine Philips, 1632–1664’, Signs:
Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 15 (1989): 34–60
Applegate, Joan, ‘Katherine Philips’s “Orinda upon Little Hector”: An Unrecorded
Musical Setting by Henry Lawes’, English Manuscript Studies 1100–1700, 4 (1993):
Barash, Carol, English Women’s Poetry, 1649–1714: Politics, Community and Linguistic
Authority (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996)
Philip Roth’s I Married a Communist (1998) and The Human Stain (2000)
indicates how the novel looks beyond filial bonds to consider what other kinds of ‘allegiances and affiliations’ might structure a life and a politicalcommunity. Through their friendship, the novel ultimately calls into question Nathan’s notion of masculine independence, and his decision to live apart from the world.
As well as noting the novel’s similarities to The Ghost Writer , critics have also pointed to the resemblance between Ira and the Swede in American Pastoral. Structurally, both characters appear to play comparable roles within their narratives and
Michael Chabon’s Telegraph Avenue (2012) and Jonathan Lethem’s The Fortress of Solitude (2003)
different register of political potentiality.
In elucidating this different register, I turn back to Derrida’s The Politics of Friendship (1997) and his suggestion that Aristotelian civic republicanism renders citizenship a militaristic form of fraternity, resulting in an exclusionary and repressive kind of politicalcommunity. 15 In this regard, Derrida’s analysis shares an affinity with the work of Jean-Luc Nancy and Maurice Blanchot, who also sought to defamiliarise the idea of an ‘organic’ or ‘natural’ community constituted by a
vindicating the self by turning ‘self-love’ into a prompt to Christian
charity and general benevolence; the playful exhibition or painful
exploration of self-fragmentation through Augustan satire and
diaries; the search through fiction for a symbolic solution to the
problematic experience of inner division and discontinuity; the twin
gestures, as the American and French revolutions confronted British
selves with the spectacle of collective action, of Romantic retreat
into nature and self, and radical effort at conjuring up a nationwide
politicalcommunity through public
express a wholly different articulation of the ‘self’ – a spiritual wit.
1 Carol Barash, English Women’s Poetry, 1649–1714: Politics, Community, and Linguistic Authority (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996),
2 Killigrew’s father, Dr Henry Killigrew, edited her Poems and had them
published the year after she died.
3 Marilyn L. Williamson, Raising Their Voices: British Women Writers,
1650–1750 (Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1990), p. 30.
4 See Anne Killigrew, ‘My Rare Wit Killing Sin’: Poems of a Restoration
Courtier, ed. Margaret J. M
, 1686, pp. av–b2v. All subsequent references to Killigrew’s verse will be taken
from this volume.
2 See H. Weinbrot, ‘Dryden’s “Anne Killigrew”: towards a new pindaric political ode’, in
R. DeMaria (ed.), British Literature 1640–1789: A Critical Reader, Blackwell, Oxford,
2008, pp. 114–25, at n. 4.
10/15/2013 12:52:55 PM
margaret j. m. ezell
3 See C. Barash, English Women’s Poetry, 1649–1714: Politics, Community, and Linguistic
Authority, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1996; and M. J. M. Ezell, ‘The post
humous publication of women
Intercultural exchanges and the redefinition of identity in Hugo Hamilton’s Disguise and Hand in the Fire
Carmen Zamorano Llena
on the Origins and Spread of
Nationalism, Benedict Anderson used the title phrase to describe his understanding
of what characterises nations. According to his definition, the nation is ‘an imagined
politicalcommunity – and imagined as both inherently limited and sovereign’, whose
existence is possible because ‘in the minds of each [of its members] lives the image of
their communion’ (1991: 6). Anderson’s phrase is especially useful, since it underscores
the constructed nature of nations, where the sense of collective identity is not inalterable, but socio
-creation rather than a loss of identity’ (Pazicky, 1998:
xv). Thus, the association between family and nation, and between
orphanhood and freedom, begins its deep entrenchment in American
culture in the Revolutionary era.
Ideological connections between family and nation appear to be
a defining feature of most, if not all, modern nations. The modern
nation state is conceived in familial terms, as a ‘natural’ association
rather than a politicalcommunity. As Benedict Anderson has shown,
nations are imagined politicalcommunities and may be conceived
of in terms of kinship