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This book is about the lives of refugee women in Britain and France. Who are they? Where do they come from? What happens to them when they arrive, while they wait for a decision on their claim for asylum, and after the decision, whether positive or negative? The book shows how laws and processes designed to meet the needs of men fleeing political persecution often fail to protect women from persecution in their home countries and fail to meet their needs during and after the decision-making process. It portrays refugee women as resilient, resourceful and potentially active participants in British and French social, political and cultural life. The book exposes the obstacles that make active participation difficult.

History and representations of confino

Confino (i.e., internal exile) was a malleable form of imprisonment during the Fascist ventennio. Confinement allowed Mussolini to bypass the judiciary thereby placing prisoners outside magistrates’ jurisdiction. The Regime applied it to political dissidents, ethnic and religious minorities, gender nonconforming people, and mafiosi, among others. Recent political discourse in and beyond Italy has drawn on similar rationales to address perceived threats against the State. This study examines confino from a historical, political, social, and cultural perspective. It provides a broad overview of the practice and it also examines particular cases and situations. In addition to this historical assessment, it is the first to analyse confinement as a cultural practice through representations in literature (e.g., letters, memoirs, historical fiction) and film. English-language publications often overlook confino and its representations. Italian critical literature, instead, often speaks in purely historical terms or is rooted in partisan perspectives. This book demonstrates that internal exile is not purely political: it possesses a cultural history that speaks to the present. The scope of this study, therefore, is to provide a cultural reading that makes manifest aspects of confino that have been appropriated by contemporary political discourse. Although directed towards students and specialists of Italian history, literature, film, and culture, the study offers a coherent portrait of confino accessible to those with a general interest in Fascism.

Transnational resistance in Europe, 1936–48
Editors: Robert Gildea and Ismee Tames

This work demonstrates that resistance to occupation by Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy during the Second World War has to be seen through a transnational, not a national, lens. It explores how people often resisted outside their country of origin because they were migrants, refugees or exiles who were already on the move. It traces their trajectories and encounters with other resisters and explores their experiences, including changes of beliefs, practices and identities. The book is a powerful, subtle and thought-provoking alternative to works on the Second World War that focus on single countries or on grand strategy. It is a ‘bottom up’ story of extraordinary individuals and groups who resisted oppression from Spain to the Soviet Union and the Balkans. It challenges the standard chronology of the war, beginning with the formation of the International Brigades in Spain and following through to the onset of the Cold War and the foundation of the state of Israel. This is a collective project by a team of international historians led by Robert Gildea, author of Fighters in the Shadows: A New History of the French Resistance (Faber & Faber, 2015). These have explored archives across Europe, the USA, Russia and Israel in order to unearth scores of fascinating individual stories which are woven together into themed chapters and a powerful new interpretation. The book is aimed at undergraduates and graduates working on twentieth-century Europe and the Second World War or interested in the possibilities of transnational history.

Given the significant similarities and differences between the welfare states of Northern Europe and their reactions to the perceived 'refugee crisis' of 2015, the book focuses primarily on the three main cases of Denmark, Sweden and Germany. Placed in a wider Northern European context – and illustrated by those chapters that also discuss refugee experiences in Norway and the UK – the Danish, Swedish and German cases are the largest case studies of this edited volume. Thus, the book contributes to debates on the governance of non-citizens and the meaning of displacement, mobility and seeking asylum by providing interdisciplinary analyses of a largely overlooked region of the world, with two specific aims. First, we scrutinize the construction of the 2015 crisis as a response to the large influx of refugees, paying particular attention to the disciplinary discourses and bureaucratic structures that are associated with it. Second, we investigate refugees’ encounters with these bureaucratic structures and consider how these encounters shape hopes for building a new life after displacement. This allows us to show that the mobility of specific segments of the world’s population continues to be seen as a threat and a risk that has to be governed and controlled. Focusing on the Northern European context, our volume interrogates emerging policies and discourses as well as the lived experiences of bureaucratization from the perspective of individuals who find themselves the very objects of bureaucracies.

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Editor: Gregory Vargo

The first collection of its kind, Chartist Drama makes available four plays written or performed by members of the Chartist movement of the 1840s. Emerging from the lively counter-culture of this protest campaign for democratic rights, these plays challenged cultural as well as political hierarchies by adapting such recognisable genres as melodrama, history plays, and tragedy for performance in radically new settings. A communal, public, and embodied art form, drama was linked for the Chartists with other kinds of political performance: the oratory of the mass platform, festival-like outdoor meetings, and the elaborate street theatre of protest marches. Plays that Chartists wrote or staged advanced new interpretations of British history and criticised aspects of the contemporary world. And Chartist drama intervened in fierce strategic arguments within the movement. Most notably, poet-activist John Watkins’s John Frost, which dramatises the gripping events of the Newport rising of 1839, in which twenty-two Chartists lost their lives, defends the rebellion and the Chartist recourse to violence as a means for the movement to achieve its aims. The volume’s appendices document over one hundred Chartist dramatic performances, staged by activists in local Chartist associations or at professional benefits at some of London’s largest working-class theatres. Gregory Vargo’s introduction and notes elucidate the previously unexplored world of Chartist dramatic culture, a context that promises to reshape what we know about early Victorian popular politics and theatre.

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Theatre and protest in Putin’s Russia
Molly Flynn

Chelovek iz podolska (Man from Podolsk, 2017) is written by playwright Dmitrii Danilov and presents a dark and farcical picture of police brutality and corruption in Russia’s lawenforcement agencies. In addition to these full productions, Teatr.doc also continued to host informal readings and discussions about political persecution, such as a reading of the prison diary written by openly gay Uzbek-Russian opposition journalist Ali Feruz, an event that prompted yet another visit from local law-enforcement officials (Mediazona, 2017). Three months after the reading, while

in Witness onstage
Ontological coordination and the assessment of consistency in asylum requests
Bruno Magalhães

asylum. Ruling: positive. (my emphasis) [Brief two] Mr E, Bangladeshi, requesting asylum to escape political persecution. The asylum seeker lacks credibility. The statements made by the asylum seeker in his asylum request questionnaire are inconsistent with the story reported at IMDH and the Federal Police. There are reasons to believe the asylum seeker

in Security/ Mobility
Vera J. Camden

particular pattern fostered in Mary Franklin the impulse to provide a record of her persecutions that resounds with her personal experience, including not only the reflections of her faith but also the domestic details that point to the plain speech that Bunyan also prefers as an anchor to his congregational witness. 22 Mary Franklin's chronicle offers the reader domestic detail alongside the record of political persecution. She presents the reader with a window into the privacy of her

in People and piety
Keeping watch on the Communists 1933–39
Charmian Brinson and Richard Dove

Scotland Yard (Capt. Liddell), TNA, KV2/1012/6a. 13 See Wolf, Tudor-Hart, The Eye of Conscience. 14 Extract Special Branch report, 9 September 1935,TNA, KV2/1012/24a. 15 Charlotte Moos, statement to the Governess of Holloway Prison, 27 April 1940, TNA, KV2/1241. 16 The AIA was set up in 1933 to promote ‘the unity of artists for peace, democracy and cultural development’. From its inception, it was involved in aiding artists displaced by political persecution in Germany and Austria. Beginning in 1935, it held several large group exhibitions, the first being ‘Artists

in A matter of intelligence
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Immigration law’s racial architecture
Nadine El-Enany

persecution that Jews faced in Russia, more persons migrating and trans-migrating arrived in Britain than in any other year of the Act’s operation.110 Antisemitism was rife across Europe. There were pogroms in Russia and Romania and antisemitic ministers had entered government in Germany and Austria-Hungary.111 It was clear that the British government had in mind a specific image of a refugee: a person of European origin in flight from religious or political persecution. It did not envisage its colonial activities overseas as productive of refugees. Home Office directions

in (B)ordering Britain