The return movement of emigrants, 1600–2000
Editor: Marjory Harper

Emigration studies have been a major historiographical concern for many years. This book addresses the significant but neglected issue of return migration to Britain and Europe since 1600. It offers some of the first studies of the phenomenon of returns. While emigration studies have become prominent in both scholarly and popular circles in recent years, return migration has remained comparatively under-researched. Despite evidence that in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries between a quarter and a third of all emigrants from many parts of Britain and Europe ultimately returned to their countries of origin. Emigrant homecomings analyses the motives, experiences and impact of these returning migrants in a wide range of locations over four hundred years, as well as examining the mechanisms and technologies which enabled their return. The book aims to open the debate by addressing some of the major issues in four thematic sections. After an overview of the process of return migration, it addresses the motives of those who returned from a wide variety of locations over a period ranging from the seventeenth century to the present day. The book looks at mechanisms of return, and considers the crucial question of the impact on the homeland of those who returned.

Gregorio Alonso

, changes took root very slowly. The ways in which these unfolded can be understood through a study of the life and works of Antonio de Aguayo, a priest born in 1836 in Granada. In 1865, under the semidictatorial and ultramontane government headed by General Ramón María Narváez, Aguayo published his well-known Carta a los presbíteros españoles (Letter to the Spanish priests). This triggered an enormous polemic that resonated through elite and popular circles alike. Aguayo aimed to assess the political dimensions of religion for, in his view, Christianity’s involvement in

in Spain in the nineteenth century
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An American independent film made by Mexicans
Deborah Shaw

funding from powerful studios. As Yannis Tzioumakis (2006: 3) points out, ‘independent’ companies Miramax and Sony Picture Classics are subsidiaries of ABC Disney and Sony Columbia, and are therefore ultimately answerable to them, despite their apparent autonomy. Nevertheless, notwithstanding their affiliation with the majors, many of the films distributed by the subsidiaries are accepted as independent in critical and popular circles. Films released between 2005 and 2008 with commercial but independent credentials distributed by Miramax include Blindness (Meirelles

in The three amigos
Peter Shirlow, Jonathan Tonge, James McAuley and Catherine McGlynn

Catholics and only 3 per cent of Protestants (Northern Ireland Life and Times Survey 2000). Negative views of former prisoners and paramilitaries in general have persisted in media, political and popular circles and Mitchell argues that establishing legitimacy has been a particular problem for loyalists. She believes that ‘until politicians, employers and other actors in civil society address the issue of

in Abandoning historical conflict?
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Garden cities and colonial planning: transnationality and urban ideas in Africa and Palestine
Liora Bigon

included quite unexpected ‘flows’. Ebenezer Howard coined the term ‘garden city’ in 1898, in his book To-Morrow: A Peaceful Path to Real Reform (slightly revised and re-titled Garden Cities of To-Morrow in 1902). 3 Since that time, Howard’s concept, in all its diversity of both theory and practice, has spread through professional, academic and popular

in Garden cities and colonial planning
Heather Streets

established. Yet after 1870, the theory of urban degeneration – in any climate – gained credibility in British scientific and popular circles. 93 Contemporaries cited the deleterious environmental effects of infant mortality, disease and overcrowding in urban areas, the combination of which were perceived to have stunted racial development to an appalling degree. 94 The urban slums of East London

in Martial races
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Paul Greenhalgh

canons of white, Western culture. The popularity in academic and popular circles of social Darwinism led to its continuous presence as an idea at exhibitions from the 1870’s onwards. Essentially, followers of social Darwinian theory subscribed to the existence of a human evolutionary chain which placed some races nearer to the animals than others. Obviously, Aryan races derived from Western stock represented

in Ephemeral vistas
A case study in the construction of a myth
S.J. Barnett

Socinianism (Unitarianism), some Anglicans had linked it with deism, for deism was understood to be virtually atheism, the worst enemy of Christendom. While Locke did not actually denominate Toland a deist, ‘he tried to nudge his readers into including the Irishman among these notorious, if obscure, heretics’.59 Locke and other determined assailants were certainly successful. From the 1690s a public image of an organized deist/atheist threat became part of the politicoreligious landscape in both intellectual and more popular circles. 106 The English deist movement Aside

in The Enlightenment and religion
Heather Streets

. As we saw in Chapter 2 , each of these groups gained renown in military and popular circles for their dramatic roles in saving the Raj. Roberts, like his contemporaries, would therefore have been exposed to multiple stories singing the praises of their loyalty and bravery in battle. But Roberts was not merely influenced by hearsay and the spirit of the times. He also had direct experience with all

in Martial races
Emily Cock

's nose, lip, or ear. This would, he wrote, provide patients with ‘the greatest benefits of all: a tranquil mind and a pleasing appearance’. 1 Copies spread throughout Europe, and the name ‘Taliacotius’ – the Latinate form of Tagliacozzi by which he was best known in Britain – was transmitted widely through medical to popular circles as ‘a famous Chirurgion of Bononia [sic] , who could put on new noses’. 2 Yet modern medical historians hold that Tagliacozzi's influence was short-lived: that all European knowledge and practice of rhinoplasty disappeared after his

in Rhinoplasty and the nose in early modern British medicine and culture