The ‘author–auteur’ appears in the disjunctions and hiatuses not as the
artist who creates the complete work but rather in the formula of Godard,
‘the work and the idea of the work’, ‘the work and the theory of the work’,
the presence of the author as critic and as reflecting on the work and its
processes, questioning what the work is and so completely as to efface the
author – in the tradition of the Nouvelle Vague.
In the Poe story as related by the young man to Anna Karina, in Godard’s
Vivre sa vie (1962), the portrait takes life as it ebbs away
Architecture and visual arts in general have been subjects of a growing body of recent scholarship connected with the ecclesiastical history of the ‘Long Eighteenth Century’, but little attention has been given to portraiture. Although honourable mention should be made of pioneering work by John Ingamells on painted episcopal portraits, and by Peter Forsaith, very recently, on Methodist portrait prints, other aspects of this extensive subject still await investigation. The article outlines the development of engraved portrayal of clergy, mainly of the Church of England, during the two centuries before production of multiple images was taken over by photography, and indicates how the quantity, variety, and dissemination of such material can provide some index of the priorities of a pre-photographic age. It does not aim to be a comprehensive or a complete survey of the corpus of engraved portraiture; nevertheless, this article provides an initial guide to the abundance of previously unexplored illustrative material, and may suggest a framework for further exploration. It is hoped that future scholars will build on this initial work to enable a complete catalogue of such images to be developed and further explored.
The cosmopolitan world of Victorian
portraiture: the Crystal Palace portrait
This chapter returns to centre stage the 500 plaster cast portraits, ranging
from Homer to Queen Victoria, comprising the Crystal Palace portrait
gallery, that ran alongside the better-known, more widely discussed Fine
Arts Courts. It considers the portraits as a microcosm of the Palace project, and develops ‘close’ and ‘distant’ readings of Samuel Phillips’s official
1854 guide.1 Countering myopic, insular interpretations of Sydenham as a
Party politics and portraiture, 1832–46
This chapter shows how visual images personified and reaffirmed the party
identities that were formed in the wake of the 1832 Reform Act. By examining
the semi-official portrait series that were published in this period, this chapter
highlights the innovative new ways in which party identities were presented
after 1832. These broke new ground by exploiting steel engraving, which greatly
increased the number of prints that could be produced, to appeal to supporters
of the rival Conservative and Reform parties. A study of
Mourning and Melancholia in Female Gothic, 1780–1800
Wright explores how novels by Eliza Fenwick, Sophia Lee, Maria Roche, and Ann Radcliffe critique, via their fascination with portraiture, eighteenth-century consumerism. Wright argues that this engagement with image-making indicates late eighteenth century concerns with fashion, opulence and consumerism which become relocated in women‘s Gothic writing through the correlated issues of female insanity, desire and loss.
Artists’ Printed Portraits and Manuscript Biographies in Rylands English MS 60
Rylands English MS 60, compiled for the Spencer family in the eighteenth century, contains 130 printed portraits of early modern artists gathered from diverse sources and mounted in two albums: 76 portraits in the first volume, which is devoted to northern European artists, and 54 in the second volume, containing Italian and French painters. Both albums of this ‘Collection of Engravings of Portraits of Painters’ were initially planned to include a written biography of each artist copied from the few sources available in English at the time, but that part of the project was abandoned. This article relates English MS 60 to shifting practices of picturing art history. It examines the rise of printed artists’ portraits, tracing the divergent histories of the genre south and north of the Alps, and explores how biographical approaches to the history of art were being replaced, in the eighteenth century, by the development of illustrated texts about art.
This volume challenges a traditional period divide of 1660, exploring continuities with the decades of civil war, the Republic and Restoration and shedding new light on religious, political and cultural conditions before and after the restoration of church and monarchy. The volume marks a significant development in transdisciplinary studies, including, as it does, chapters on political theory, religion, poetry, pamphlets, theatre, opera, portraiture, scientific experiment and philosophy. Chapters show how unresolved issues at national and local level, residual republicanism and religious dissent, were evident in many areas of Restoration life, and recorded in plots against the regime, memoirs, diaries, historical writing, pamphlets and poems. An active promotion of forgetting, the erasing of memories of the Republic and the reconstruction of the old order did not mend the political, religious and cultural divisions that had opened up during the civil wars. In examining such diverse genres as women’s writing, the prayer book, prophetic writings, the publications of the Royal Society, histories of the civil wars by Clarendon and Hobbes, the poetry and prose of Milton and Marvell, plays and opera, court portraiture and political cartoons the volume substantiates its central claim that the Restoration was conditioned by continuity and adaptation of linguistic and artistic discourses.
This book analyses Anna of Denmark’s material and visual patronage at the Stuart
courts, examining her engagement with a wide array of expressive media including
architecture, garden design, painting, music, dress, and jewellery. Encompassing
Anna’s time in Denmark, England, and Scotland, it establishes patterns of
interest and influence in her agency, while furthering our knowledge of
Baltic-British transfer in the early modern period. Substantial archival work
has facilitated a formative re-conceptualisation of James and Anna’s
relationship, extended our knowledge of the constituents of consortship in the
period, and has uncovered evidence to challenge the view that Anna followed the
cultural accomplishments of her son, Prince Henry. This book reclaims Anna of
Denmark as the influential and culturally active royal woman that her
contemporaries knew. Combining politics, culture, and religion across the courts
of Denmark, Scotland, and England, it enriches our understanding of royal
women’s roles in early modern patriarchal societies and their impact on the
development of cultural modes and fashions. This book will be of interest to
upper level undergraduate and postgraduate students taking courses on early
modern Europe in the disciplines of Art and Architectural History, English
Literature, Theatre Studies, History, and Gender Studies. It will also attract a
wide range of academics working on early modern material and visual culture, and
female patronage, while members of the public who enjoy the history of courts
and the British royals will also find it distinctively appealing.
This book examines the role of political likenesses in a half-century that was crucial for the political modernisation of Britain, a two-party system that began to take shape and politicians became increasingly accountable and responsive to public opinion. Political language, especially electoral rhetoric, has been accorded considerable weight by recent studies in building broad coalitions of political support in popular and electoral politics. The book studies political likenesses, the key mode of visual politics at this time, as part of a nuanced analysis of contemporary political culture and the nature of the representative system. It examines a diverse range of material including woven silk portraiture, oil paintings, numismatics and medals, banners, ceramics, statuary and memorials as well as items printed on paper or card. After an analysis of the visual culture spawned by the reform bills of 1831-1832, the book shows how Conservative and Liberal/Reformer identities were visualised through semi-official series of portrait prints. The pictorial press, photographs and portrait testimonials, statues and memorials, MPs were venerated as independent representatives and champions of particular localities, trades, interests or issues, and not party hacks. Depictions of Lord Palmerston and his rivals, including Lord John Russell and Lord Derby, in the 1850s and 1860s often underplayed in pictorial representations to emphasise physical and political vigour. The role of political portraits and cartoons in the decade after the passing of the 1867 Representation of the People Act is also discussed.
Radical visual culture:
from caricature to portraiture
The previous chapter highlighted the importance of portraiture for shaping the
identities of the political parties formed in the wake of the 1832 Reform Act.
However, it was radicals who were consistently the most innovative in their
exploitation of new visual technologies. This was no coincidence. Portraiture
was even more valuable to radical movements, which frequently experienced
media indifference or hostility. To counter this, radicals produced their own
series to project their own self-image to