Along with the suffrage campaign, women's liberation activism is one of the most renowned aspects of women's political history. The women's liberation movement (WLM) has often been linked with the 'big city'. This is the first book-length account of the women's liberation movement in Scotland, which charts the origins and development of this important social movement of the post-1945 period. In doing so, it reveals the inventiveness and fearlessness of feminist activism, while also pointing towards the importance of considering the movement from the local and grassroots perspectives. This book has two central arguments. First, it presses for a more representative historiography in which material from other places outside of the large women's liberation centres are included. Second, it highlights that case studies not only enrich our knowledge about women's liberation but they also challenge the way the British movement has been portrayed by both participants and historians. The book commences with contextualising the subject and summarising recent research into the movement in the United Kingdom. It looks at the roots of the movement by offering portrayals of the women who went on to form women's liberation groups in Scotland. The book then analyses the phenomenon of 'consciousness-raising' (CR) and the part it had to play in the WLM's development. The focus then moves to exploring where, when and why women's liberation groups emerged. The campaigns taken up by the WLM were to defend abortion rights and campaign against violence against women.
the post-1945period. No longer were the sovereign-right
weapons mere marginal accretions to the traditional corpus of
belligerents’ rights, as they had previously been. Now, under
the rubric of the right of self-defence, they have become a fully-
edged independent body of law capable of entirely replacing the
traditional law of neutrality.
The post-Second World War era produced
of the impact of American ideas on the company – the Italian fair was inspired by an event previously held at R. H. Macy & Company in New York in 1951.
This case study of the 1953 Galeries Lafayette Italian fair is a suitable starting-point for the historical study of those fashion professionals working behind the scenes. While fashion history research more often has privileged the figure of the designer or couturier, given emphasis here are those key intermediaries central to the fashion system. In addition, the chapter covers the post1945period, a less
Although public bathing in Britain has a lengthy history, successive Acts of
Parliament during the nineteenth century saw the activity become more
widespread, with the emphasis in industrialised urban centres, such as
Manchester, on public hygiene rather than leisure. However, with improved
sanitary conditions at home and the advent of modern domestic appliances,
the twentieth century saw a return to public bathing for pure leisure. In
the post-1945 period, numerous dedicated swimming pools were opened by
municipal authorities across Manchester in places such as Oldham and
Radcliffe. Now facing closure and demolition, this chapter offers a lament
on the loss of municipal swimming baths and the familiar leisure experience
they once offered.
Bradford, an area to the east of Manchester’s city centre, has undergone, and
continues to undergo, significant change. Once open pasture,
industrialisation throughout the nineteenth century saw factories and mills
joined by workers’ housing and associated amenities, such as public houses
and places of worship. However, with the decline of industry in the
twentieth century and the displacement of Bradford’s residents as municipal
authorities enacted comprehensive redevelopment schemes in the post-1945
period, many of those amenities became redundant. This chapter considers
whether the relocation of Manchester City Football Club from Moss Side to
Bradford offers hope that some of the area’s remaining historic buildings
can be repurposed.
-representation of others, unless
– like the SNP in Scotland at the 2015 general election– they win
a near-majority of the votes nearly everywhere. Those geographies
can be challenged by campaigning strategies. For most of the post-
1945period the Conservatives have benefited from the distributional
component of the bias measure because Labour’s votes have been
spatially more clustered and concentrated. But when Labour won
substantial support outside its traditional working-class heartlands,
in 1966 and again in 1997–2005, it overcame the apparently in-built
union and industrial relations patterns at Ford and General Motors.
The British and German car industries in the post-1945period
In Britain and Germany, like in other Western European countries
such as Italy, France or Belgium, the automobile industry became one of the
crucial sectors of post-1945 national economies (see Laux, 1992 ). With the breakthrough to mass car ownership across Western Europe, the
industry expanded enormously and made a major
Representational democracy is at the heart of the UK’s political constitution, and the electoral system is central to achieving it. But is the first-past-the-post system used to elect the UK parliament truly representative? To answer that question requires an understanding of several factors: debates over the nature of representation; the evolution of the current electoral system; how first-past-the-post distorts electoral politics; and how else elections might be conducted. Running through all these debates are issues over the representation not only of people but also of places. The book examines all of these issues and focuses on the effect of geography on the operation of the electoral system.
Manchester: Something rich and strange challenges us to see the quintessential
post-industrial city in new ways. Bringing together twenty-three diverse writers
and a wide range of photographs of Greater Manchester, it argues that how we see
the city can have a powerful effect on its future – an urgent question given how
quickly the urban core is being transformed. The book uses sixty different words
to speak about the diversity of what we think of as Manchester – whether the
chimneys of its old mills, the cobbles mostly hidden under the tarmac, the
passages between terraces, or the everyday act of washing clothes in a
laundrette. Unashamedly down to earth in its focus, this book makes the case for
a renewed imaginative relationship that recognises and champions the fact that
we’re all active in the making and unmaking of urban spaces.
importance of comparisons with foreign industrial relations systems for
debates in the FRG (see Hoff, 1977 ). That the emergence
of a few small and militant occupational unions (e.g. train drivers) in the early
2000s has again triggered German employer anxiety about the alleged danger to ‘import’
the ‘British disease’ 1 should be sufficient proof for the salience of this issue in the
post-1945period. In the specific case of supervisory board co