The history of relief work is in its infancy. This book draws on new archival research to reveal the priorities of nineteenth-century relief workers, and the legacies of their preoccupations for relief work today. It first explores the inauguration of the British National Society for Aid to the Sick and Wounded in War (NAS) at the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War in 1870 under the figurehead of Loyd Lindsay. Then, the book sees the revival of the NAS for work in the Balkans during a period of nationalist violence and Ottoman counter-insurgency which culminated in the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-1878. It also follows the staff of relief committees as they dispensed aid in British colonial wars. The book examines the critiques of British policy in the Boer War (1899-1902) emanating from intersecting circles of Quakers, New Liberals and ethicists, and considers these groups' offer of aid to Boer civilians. Further, the book concentrates on the methodologies of relief for Boer inmates of British concentration camps in South Africa and on the implications of this relief for its intended recipients during and after the war. It concentrates on aid to British soldiers. The book closes by tracing continuities in vocational practices and dispositions to emerging areas of concern in the post-war period, in particular child welfare, and briefly considers their implication for relief work today.
The Portuguese Revolution of 1974-1975 was a critical juncture in the second half of the European twentieth century. It was the first in a series of authoritarian collapses that would bring the whole of western and central Europe into liberal democracy, and the so-called Revolution of the Carnations was also many other things. This book is the first in-depth study of the widest urban movement of the European post-war period, an event that shook the balance of Cold War politics by threatening the possibility of revolution in Western Europe. The Socialist Party (PS) and the Popular Democratic Party (PPD) set about dismantling the idea that there had popular movement embodying the possibility of different society. A significant policy shift in the field of housing lay the foundations for a change in the relations and meanings of urban citizenship. Popular mobilisation over the summer and autumn of 1974 was key in undermining a project of limited liberalisation and strengthening the hand of those in Armed Forces Movement (MFA) and civilian parties. After the April 1975 elections, the conflicting claims between revolutionary and electoral legitimacy, between the street and the ballot box, created an increasingly polarised atmosphere, and claims of imminent coups and plots were discussed. The Lisbon urban social movement did not disappear on 25 November 1975. Exploring the origins, trajectory and demise of the urban movement in Lisbon has been a way to question and revisit the role of popular collective actors in Portugal's revolution and transition to democracy.
Far from a trivial topic, the post-war train spotting craze swept most boys and some girls into a passion for railways, and for many, ignited a lifetime's interest. This book traces this post-war cohort, and those which followed, as they invigorated different sectors in the world of railway enthusiasm. Today Britain's now-huge preserved railway industry finds itself driven by tensions between preserving a loved past which ever fewer people can remember and earning money from tourist visitors. It was Hamilton Ellis and Philip Unwin who were the joint pioneers of the 'Railway Book Mania' which ran from 1947 to the dwindling of popular and mid-depth railway history writing in the 1970s. British railway enthusiasts suffer from an image problem. Standing forlorn on station platforms, train spotters are butts for every stand-up comic's jokes. Like some other collectors, train spotters collect ephemera: locomotive numbers are signs unconnected to any marketable commodity. Train spotting had its own rich culture. As British railways declined from their Edwardian peak, enthusiasts' structure of feeling shifted steadily from celebrating novelty to mourning loss. Always a good hater as well as a skilled engineer, more than seventy years ago Curly Lawrence identified issues which still bounce around modelling sections of the British railway fancy. The book discusses toy trains, model engineering and railway modelling. British railway enthusiasm remains a remarkably varied activity today, articulated through attachment (of whatever kind) to prototype railways' life-world.
the Swedish welfare state. The expansion of public responsibility for
social security that took place in the post-warperiod was based on the
notion of security and social citizenship as the foundation for an
efficient society, and indeed as a prerequisite for future economic
growth. However, as the SAP embarked on its ‘third way’ in
the late 1970s and early 1980s, its understanding of social policy as a
opens up the possibility that multiple versions or discourses of gender can
co-exist in a given historical moment, enabling historical actors to draw
on and perform different identities in different locations and times.5
Employing this model of gender – and sexuality – as performative, this
book will trace a range of gender and sexual identity models current in
Britain in the post-warperiod, and explore the opportunities offered by
specific discourses and spaces for individual women to perform distinct
gendered and sexual identities.
A range of definitions of
Social democracy on the home front in Britain during the Second World War
but the key element that he identified as significant was less institutional, and
more to do with a wartime shift in attitudes and social experience. His own
proposal was that social clubs and adult education after the war might enable
the spirit of civil defence to live on, perpetuating this sort of active citizenship
and the satisfaction that people felt in being able to make an active contribution
to their community.
In the post-warperiod, neighbourliness seemed in some ways to become embedded in ideas of
he is sempre di scena [always at centre stage].10
The aim here is to explore this phenomenon by reference to three themes.
First, the formation of conservative public opinion in the first decade and a
half following the war will be considered. Second, attention will be paid to the
place of Mussolini in the star system of the post-warperiod. Thirdly, consideration will be given to the presence of Mussolini in popular culture.
Mussolini in popular memory
Serious historical treatment of the Fascist period began in Italy in the 1960s
with the appearance of the first
Beyond Observation offers a historical analysis of ethnographic film from
the birth of cinema in 1895 until 2015. It covers a large number of films made
in a broad range of styles, in many different parts of the world, from the
Arctic to Africa, from urban China to rural Vermont. It is the first extensive
historical account of its kind and will be accessible to students and lecturers
in visual anthropology as well as to those previously unfamiliar with
ethnographic film. Among the early genres that Paul Henley discusses are
French reportage films, the Soviet kulturfilm, the US travelogue, the classic
documentaries of Robert Flaherty and Basil Wright, as well as the more academic
films of Margaret Mead and Gregory Bateson. Among the leading film-makers of the
post-war period, he discusses Jean Rouch, John Marshall and Robert Gardner, as
well as the emergence of Observational Cinema in the 1970s. He also considers
‘indigenous media’ projects of the 1980s, and the ethnographic films that
flourished on British television until the 1990s. In the final part, he
examines the recent films of David and Judith MacDougall, the Harvard Sensory
Media Lab, and a range of films authored in a participatory manner, as possible
models for the future.
, including education, leisure and consumption), on the other. In turn, these new norms informed and influenced the regulation of work and rest.
With a particular focus on post-war civil aviation, this chapter outlines how and why airline schedules were regulated in the post-warperiod. Though there were some attempts to harmonise regulations across Europe from the 1990s, full integration of flight time limitations in Europe by the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) only came to pass in February 2016.
The Labour minority governments
The Labour Party saw an improvement in its electoral fortunes in the
immediate post-warperiod. At the 1918 election Labour gained 22 per
cent of the vote, a tremendous increase from 7 per cent at the last election held in 1910.1 During the war both the trade union and the
Labour Party membership had doubled, and working-class militancy
had increased in the first few years of peace.2 With the concomitant
increase in class-consciousness, the working class now identified far