Britain's Chief Rabbis were attempting to respond to the new religious climate, and deployed a variety of tactics to achieve their aims. This book presents a radical new interpretation of Britain's Chief Rabbis from Nathan Adler to Immanuel Jakobovits. It examines the theologies of the Chief Rabbis and seeks to reveal and explain their impact on the religious life of Anglo-Jewry. The book begins with the study of Nathan Marcus Adler, Chief Rabbi from 1845, and it then explores how in 1880 Hermann Adler became Delegate Chief Rabbi on his father's semi-retirement to Brighton. In the pre-modern era, and for a while after, rabbis saw themselves and were seen as the heirs of the rabbinic tradition, whose role first and foremost was to rule on matters of religious law. The book argues that the Chief Rabbis' response to modernity should be viewed in the context of Jewish religious responses that emerged following the Enlightenment and Emancipation. It sketches out a possible typology of those responses, so that Chief Rabbis can be placed in that context. Chief Rabbis were members of the acknowledgement school, which contained a number of different theological currents: romantic, scientific, aesthetic and nostalgic. Hermann Adler was the Chief Rabbi during his time, and his religious policies were to a great extent motivated by his religious ideas. Joseph Herman Hertz's theology placed him in the traditional group within the acknowledgement school, although he was influenced by its scientific, romantic and aesthetic branches.
rulings by subsequent generations of rabbis, who exercised a great deal
of ﬂexibility and creativity in their interpretations. Great ﬁgures such
as Maimonides and R. Yosef Karo codiﬁed these legal conclusions in
collections, which became authoritative, and were in turn commented
upon, most signiﬁcantly by R. Moses Isserles who – by adding glosses
stating Ashkenazi custom – made the Shulhan Arukh acceptable to
both Sefardi and Ashkenazi Jews.1 In the pre-modernera, and for a
while after, rabbis saw themselves and were seen as the heirs of this
The face is a vital site of embodied emotional display. By examining descriptions of facial pallor in a range of Chaucer’s works, Downes explores the poet’s representation of the face as an affective text, which launches an interpretative challenge to both the medieval and the modern reader of fiction, as well as deepening our understanding of cultural expressions of feeling in the pre-modern era.
, mentors, and collaborators. Moreover, these stories frequently equate change with progress and rarely question the latter. Archaeologists too use this post-Industrial-Revolution cognitive framework, even though much of the material with which we work pre-dates it; and we know – both from historical writing and from anthropology and ethnohistory – that the small-scale societies that characterized the pre-modernera often operated with profoundly different internal logics than our own.
The ideas that I develop here began to emerge during my doctoral research at the
understanding of the individual and
his place in the world – one that was no longer cemented by a traditional cosmic
order based on divine authority. Instead, the individual was seen as autonomous
and self-determining, and as having essential moral and rational capacities that
would emancipate him from arbitrary political authority and religious mystification. The metaphysical foundationalism that characterised the pre-modernera gave way to a belief in the universality of reason and the unlimited capacities of humanity. Man replaced God, and reason and morality supplanted
sociology of experience
The attempt to re-articulate what has become increasingly disassociated
(reason and subjectivity) thus involves a return to the idea of modernity.3 The end of the pre-modernera implied the replacement of the
divine principle with both the impersonal law of science and the ‘I’ of
the subject. The Subject is deﬁned by Touraine as follows:
The Subject is the desire of an individual to act and to be recognised as
an actor . . . The Subject represents the shift from the Id to I, towards
control over one’s life, so that it has a personal sense
technique of mortality effacement. By engaging with literature from
sociological and historical studies of death practice, we argued that
death, security and the emergence of modern rationalism are connected.
Death was not perceived as terrible in the pre-modernera; rather it
only took on those social characteristics during the rise of rationalism
and modernity. Why? Working with the history of death in Western Europe
Asia. Despite the strong Indian cultural influence in the region, he pointed out, the caste system, with its superior Brahmin, was not adopted. Nowhere in Southeast Asia was the ruler ‘dispossessed of his religious prerogatives’, and in this sense kingship could be said to have fixed ‘a limit to Indian influence’ in the region. 16
Although Malay monarchy was remoulded over the years, such a deep ideational heritage in itself is likely to be a factor in that monarchy’s survival. The essentialness of monarchy is conveyed time and again in Malay writings of the pre-modern
Over more than thirty years of reform and opening, the Chinese Communist Party has pursued the gradual marketization of China’s economy alongside the preservation of a resiliently authoritarian political system, defying long-standing predictions that ‘transition’ to a market economy would catalyse deeper political transformation. In an era of deepening synergy between authoritarian politics and finance capitalism, Communists constructing capitalism offers a novel and important perspective on this central dilemma of contemporary Chinese development. This book challenges existing state–market paradigms of political economy and reveals the Eurocentric assumptions of liberal scepticism towards Chinese authoritarian resilience. It works with an alternative conceptual vocabulary for analysing the political economy of financial development as both the management and exploitation of socio-economic uncertainty. Drawing upon extensive fieldwork and over sixty interviews with policymakers, bankers, and former party and state officials, the book delves into the role of China’s state-owned banking system since 1989. It shows how political control over capital has been central to China’s experience of capitalist development, enabling both rapid economic growth whilst preserving macroeconomic and political stability. Communists constructing capitalism will be of academic interest to scholars and graduate students in the fields of Chinese studies, social studies of finance, and international and comparative political economy. Beyond academia, it will be essential reading for anyone interested in the evolution of Chinese capitalism and its implications for an increasingly central issue in contemporary global politics: the financial foundations of illiberal capitalism.
This book explores the development of Robert Lepage’s distinctive approach to stage direction in the early (1984–94) and middle (1995–2008) stages of his career, arguing that globalisation had a defining effect in shaping his aesthetic and professional trajectory. It combines examination of Lepage’s theatremaking techniques with discussion of his work’s effects on audiences, calling on Lepage’s own statements as well as existing scholarship and critical response. In addition to globalisation theory, the book draws on cinema studies, queer theory, and theories of affect and reception. As such, it offers an unprecedented conceptual framework, drawing together what has previously been a scattered field of research. Each of six chapters treats a particular aspect of globalisation, using this as a means to explore one or more of Lepage’s productions. These aspects include the relationship of the local (in Lepage’s case, his background in Québec) to the global; the place of individual experience within global late modernity; the effects of screen media on human perception; the particular affect of ‘feeling global’; the place of branding in contemporary creative systems; and the relationship of creative industries to neoliberal economies. Making theatre global: Robert Lepage’s original stage productions will be of interest to scholars of contemporary theatre, advanced-level undergraduates with an interest in the application of theoretical approaches to theatrical creation and reception, and arts lovers keen for new perspectives on one of the most talked-about theatre artists of the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries.