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A sourcebook 1700–1820
Editors: E.J. Clery and Robert Miles

The aim of this book is to make available a body of texts connected with the cultural phenomenon known as Gothic writing. The book includes many of the critical writings and reviews which helped to constitute Gothic as a distinct genre, by revisions of the standards of taste, by critique and by outright attack. Together, this material represents a substantial part of the discursive hinterland of Gothic. The chapters on supernaturalism, on the aesthetics of Gothic, and on opposition to Gothic contain a number of the standard references in any history of the genre. They are juxtaposed with other more novel items of journalism, religious propaganda, folk tradition, non-fictional narrative, poetry and so on. The book also includes chapters on the politics of Gothic, before and after the French Revolution. Therefore, it includes extracts from Tacitus and Montesquieu, the authorities that eighteenth-century commentators most often referred to. The story of Britain's Gothic origins, although implicitly progressivist, was to be re-fashioned in the cultural and sociological theories critical of modern society: that vital eighteenth-century trend known as primitivism. The book also broadly covers the period from the height of the Gothic vogue (in the mid-1790s) to the mid-nineteenth century. The author hopes that the book will encourage students to follow new routes, make new connections, and enable them to read set works on the syllabus in more adventurous and historically informed ways.

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Elza Adamowicz

. At times, photographs of ethnographic objects were presented alongside apparently unrelated material: for example, the photograph of a statue of a Theban goddess illustrates the account of a visit to French engineer Henri Fabre; a New Guinea statue is juxtaposed with a vaudeville performer. Such cases represent examples of ‘soft’ primitivism, the modish appropriation of exotic images – and the stereotyping of ‘black’ culture – in a process intent on the de-specification of the non-European image and its assimilation into popular German culture. It leads art

in Dada bodies
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The legacy of Der Blaue Reiter in the art of Paul Klee and Nacer Khemir
Sarah McGavran

Primitivism in Twentieth-Century Art: Affinity of the Tribal and the Modern at the Museum of Modern Art in 1984 on the grounds that formal similarities do not necessarily 160 Sarah McGavran convey similar intentions.7 Khemir’s affinity for Klee runs in the opposite direction – from North Africa to Europe – he nevertheless assumes a sense of shared purpose and understanding across time and cultures. As I shall explain in further detail below, the framework of modernist primitivism from which this criticism arose nevertheless helps historicize Klee’s Tunisian journey and

in German Expressionism
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From White Zombie to World War Z
Fred Botting

bodysnatchers, results of the dehumanising efficiency of technocratic power rather than figures embodying generic gothic distinctions between primitivism and enlightenment. In American films of the 1930s and 1940s – King of the Zombies, I Walked with a Zombie – however, gothic themes are played out in a racialised context: a displaced South, the Caribbean, provides the setting for a sexualised encounter with

in Globalgothic
Catherine Baker

the formula with a faster beat. 6 Both songs' videos connoted primitivism through dancers shaking raised palms and performers wearing fluorescent costumes and body paint, blurring mid-1990s European rave aesthetics with evocations of a ritualistic, sexualised Africa on which rave's own ‘tribal’ and ‘shamanistic’ imaginaries (Hutson 1999 ) already played. 7 ‘Afrika’ itself was the title of a 1995 hit (voted ‘Hit of the Year’ and ‘Best Arrangement’ in Croatia's annual music awards) by Dino Dvornik, a Split-born funk musician

in Race and the Yugoslav region
Katherine Kuenzli

images are far from coherent; they originate in not one, but at least two competing theories and practices of the Gesamtkunstwerk, which respectively focus on opposing principles of consonance and dissonance. Together, the connected, but not identical, formal strategies of Der Blaue Reiter and the Folkwang Museum foreground how competing theories and practices of the Gesamtkunstwerk helped shape modernists’ interest in ‘primitive’ art. Most discussions of twentieth-century modernist primitivism treat the visual arts in isolation, following a standard set by Carl

in German Expressionism
Michael Loadenthal

Bookchin took on this question in a well-known essay titled, “Social Anarchism or Lifestyle Anarchism: An Unbridgeable Chasm.” In it, Bookchin (1995) argues that for 200 years anarchism has wrestled with two tendencies, “a personalistic commitment to individual autonomy and a collectivist commitment to social freedom.” The individualist anarchism that Bookchin describes is infused with notes of escapism, bohemianism, mystical primitivism, and is opposed to the social, movement-making and institution-building collectivism embodied in “classical anarchist” thinkers such as

in The politics of attack
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Paul Greenhalgh

primitivism were important factors in the evolution of some of the greatest practitioners, the expositions most certainly being a prime source. The Paris expositions of 1878, 1889 and 1900 brought primitive art from Oceania and Africa to the attention of a European public more dramatically than any events before or after. The exhibits were obviously of importance to anthropologists and ethnologists, but at

in Ephemeral vistas
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Geological folklore and Celtic literature, from Cornwall to Scotland
Shelley Trower

geological primitivism discussed in my first chapter develops over the course of the nineteenth century, unearthing a growing association between rocks and race. Davy’s personification of a primitive landscape leads in this chapter to the sense in which an ancient Celtic race is identified with its rocks. The chapter will go on to establish similarities between the work of Hunt, Hugh Miller, Ernest Renan

in Rocks of nation
Religion, politics and the past in post-revolutionary England

Reformation without end reinterprets the English Reformation. No one in eighteenth-century England thought that they lived during ‘the Enlightenment’. Instead, they thought that they still faced the religious, intellectual and political problems unleashed by the Reformation, which began in the sixteenth century. They faced those problems, though, in the aftermath of two bloody seventeenth-century political and religious revolutions.

This book is about the ways the eighteenth-century English debated the causes and consequences of those seventeenth-century revolutions. Those living in post-revolutionary England conceived themselves as living in the midst of the very thing which they thought had caused the revolutions: the Reformation. The reasons for and the legacy of the Reformation remained hotly debated in post-revolutionary England because the religious and political issues it had generated remained unresolved and that irresolution threatened more civil unrest. For this reason, most that got published during the eighteenth century concerned religion. This book looks closely at the careers of four of the eighteenth century’s most important polemical divines, Daniel Waterland, Conyers Middleton, Zachary Grey and William Warburton. It relies on a wide range of manuscript sources, including annotated books and unpublished drafts, to show how eighteenth-century authors crafted and pitched their works.