Traditionally our understanding of that world has been filtered through the lenses of war, plantation and colonisation. This book explores the lives of people living in early modern Ireland through the books and printed ephemera which they bought, borrowed or stole from others. In economic terms, the technology of print was of limited significance in sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Ireland, employing no more than a handful of individuals on a full-time basis. It uses the perspective of the world of print as a vantage point from which to observe the shifts in early modern Irish society. To do this it exploits two important attributes of print. First, the printed word had a material form and hence by examining how it was created, traded and owned as a commodity it is possible to chart some of the economic changes that took place in early modern Ireland as a traditional exchange economy gave way to a more commercial one. The second important attribute of print was that it had the potential to transmit ideas. The book discusses the social context of print, its social meaning, and with what contemporaries thought of the material and intellectual commodity that printing with movable type brought to Ireland. It also attempts to construct how contemporaries used the books they had bought, borrowed, stolen or heard others read aloud. The efforts of booksellers and others ensured that contemporaries had a range of books to which they could to turn for profit and pleasure according to their needs.
imperialism, society and culture. Most importantly, it concentrates on
the subject of ephemera as a concept of display, more firmly embedding
ephemera studies into the literature relating to the British Empire and
popular culture than has been the case to date. In so doing, it examines
the Bodleian Library’s John Johnson Collection of PrintedEphemera
and the manner in which its material can be used to investigate imperial
, reproductions and printedephemera reached wider audiences, and a taste for collecting and handling images developed. Printedephemera, from broadsheets to advertising cards and illustrated papers, had the potential to function as promotional objects and public images but could also operate in intimate spaces. However, elucidating how this ‘culte’ operated in everyday life is not an easy task as there is there is little evidence regarding experience vis-à-vis the printed image.
Some documents, however, do offer insight into how print media spurred emotion and was mediated
other forms of printedephemera. Depictions of Madrid have ranged from sprawling views, cityscapes, and maps to cartoons and scenes of everyday life and social types. Taken as a whole, they provide a valuable picture of how the city was portrayed in print culture and the fundamental role that public life played across visual media. By the final decades of the century, readers were familiar with different aesthetic conventions and managed different formats with ease. The interdependence of illustrations, cartoons, and photography reveals that drawings of street life
The archive has assumed a new significance in the history of sex, and this book visits a series of such archives, including the Kinsey Institute’s erotic art; gay masturbatory journals in the New York Public Library; the private archive of an amateur pornographer; and one man’s lifetime photographic dossier on Baltimore hustlers. The subject topics covered are wide-ranging: the art history of homoeroticism; casual sex before hooking-up; transgender; New York queer sex; masturbation; pornography; sex in the city. The duality indicated by the book’s title reflects its themes. It is an experiment in writing an American sexual history that refuses the confines of identity sexuality studies, spanning the spectrum of queer, trans, and the allegedly ‘normal’. What unites this project is a fascination with sex at the margins, refusing the classificatory frameworks of heterosexuality and homosexuality, and demonstrating gender and sexual indecision and flexibility. And the book is also an exploration of the role of the archive in such histories. The sex discussed is located both in the margins of the archives, what has been termed the counterarchive, but also, importantly, in the pockets of recorded desire located in the most traditional and respectable repositories. The sexual histories in this book are those where pornography and sexual research are indistinguishable; where personal obsession becomes tomorrow’s archive. The market is potentially extensive: those interested in American studies, sexuality studies, contemporary history, the history of sex, psychology, anthropology, sociology, gender studies, queer studies, trans studies, pornography studies, visual studies, museum studies, and media studies.
’, Historical Journal, 36 (1993), 383–414.
26 For an example of a very sensitive approach which is able to demonstrate
in a sophisticated way the continuing usefulness of Separate Spheres,
see A. Summers, Female Lives, Modern States: Women, Religion and
Public Life in Britain (Newbury: Threshold Press, 2000), pp. 5–26.
27 For example, R. McWilliam, The Tichborne Claimant: A Victorian
Sensation (London: Hambledon Continuum, 2007), but see also
Hewitt, Unrespectable Recreations.
28 For example, The John Johnson Collection: An Archive of PrintedEphemera (Bodleian Library
Thornton, pointing out that there was a choice of such
books under similar titles, and incorrect editions ‘are frequently sold to the
great prejudice of the buyer they being much less and quite different books’.
To prevent this problem one was urged to buy only from the official outlet,
Robert Thornton himself.19
In addition to these substantial books and manuals of practice there also
existed a wide range of printedephemera. Leases, hearth money receipts,
forms for debts and court schedules came to have printed forms and circulate
widely. Such material had begun to
other printed and visual sources, including guidebooks, novels, maps, urban treatises, sessions of congress, costumbrista collections, postcards, and other printedephemera. Its timeline spans part of the Sexenio Democrático (1868–74) and the early decades of the Restoration, which commenced in 1875. The Restoration inaugurated a period of stability in the daily life of the capital, albeit through a fragile political system. However, it was during these decades that the city expanded and its press and printing industry thrived. While the book’s focus is mainly on
Performing popular culture at the Crystal Palace c.1900
1900), p. 6. The Crystal
Palace Picture Gallery established in 1856 was one of several free permanent
exhibitions available at the Palace. Typically, it consisted of an exhibition
of ‘Modern Oil and Watercolour Paintings by Eminent British and Foreign
Artists’, which were offered for sale, ‘Crystal Palace Programme’ (9 January
1896), not paginated, John Johnson Collection of PrintedEphemera, http://
johnjohnson.chadwyck.co.uk (accessed 2 April 2014).
4 The extent of this contribution to popular culture is exemplified by the work
of John England, scenic artist, and
them. Only a contextual approach to the advertising imagery could make
The study of black
representations in historical popular culture
Much of the literature which has
considered historical printedephemera has taken a survey approach to
the subject. It is interesting that many of the books on the subject are
associated with specific exhibitions hosted in