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A prologue
Willem de Blécourt

Fairy tales were communicated mainly in bourgeois households where religion was interwoven with romanticism. The popular notions of fairy tale history, current during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, ever since Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm composed their Kinder- und Hausmärchen (KHM), suffer from one major handicap: they are built on assertions rather than on evidence. The Magic Flight cluster demanded attention because it appeared to be the one story theme most represented in the KHM, with versions by Friederike Mannel, Dortchen Wild, Jeannette and Marie Hassenpflug and Ludowine von Haxthausen. Over the last few years fairy tale research has made great strides, although most of it is better available in German than in English, as is witnessed by standard works such as the multi-authored Enzyklopädie des Märchens and Walter Scherf's two-volume Märchenlexikon.

in Tales of magic, tales in print
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Print, reading and social change in early modern Ireland

Traditionally our understanding of that world has been filtered through the lenses of war, plantation and colonisation. This book explores the lives of people living in early modern Ireland through the books and printed ephemera which they bought, borrowed or stole from others. In economic terms, the technology of print was of limited significance in sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Ireland, employing no more than a handful of individuals on a full-time basis. It uses the perspective of the world of print as a vantage point from which to observe the shifts in early modern Irish society. To do this it exploits two important attributes of print. First, the printed word had a material form and hence by examining how it was created, traded and owned as a commodity it is possible to chart some of the economic changes that took place in early modern Ireland as a traditional exchange economy gave way to a more commercial one. The second important attribute of print was that it had the potential to transmit ideas. The book discusses the social context of print, its social meaning, and with what contemporaries thought of the material and intellectual commodity that printing with movable type brought to Ireland. It also attempts to construct how contemporaries used the books they had bought, borrowed, stolen or heard others read aloud. The efforts of booksellers and others ensured that contemporaries had a range of books to which they could to turn for profit and pleasure according to their needs.

Stefania Forlini

This paper examines how the reconfiguration of embodiment at the end of the nineteenth century provides Charlotte Mew with a powerful trope of disembodiment which she employs to inscribe a new kind of body in her short story, ‘Passed’- a body which allows the expression of lesbian desire. The ‘reconfiguration of embodiment’ discussed in this essay is, more specifically, the result of the emergence of the ‘machinic-human body’ (a precursor to the post-human at this time). This paper discusses how this machinic-human body ‘which is Gothic or ‘abhuman’ as the term is employed by Kelly Hurley in her book, The Gothic Body is linked to Mew‘s use of erasure, silence, death, and out-of-body-experience, and how Mew employs erasure of the printed word, and death of the heterosexual body to encode a new body, with ‘new’ desires. In ‘Passed’, text and body are intimately linked such that within the world of the story erasure of the written word is associated with the erasure of the heterosexual body, and this very erasure enacts an encoding of a homosexual one. At the same time, of course, it is Mew‘s use of print that allows the erasure and encoding that is the work of the story.

Gothic Studies
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Alun Withey

spirituality and magic in Wales. Literacy was a vital component in the acquisition and spread of medical knowledge, and the growing use of books reflects the increasing import of the printed word in Wales, and the complex relationship between oral and literate, English and Welsh cultures. Likewise, the increasing use of correspondence networks as vehicles for the transmission of knowledge can be viewed as part of the same process. Questions of language are always central to studies of Wales, and the medical terminology of WITHEY 9780719085468 PRINT.indd 197 20/10/2011 16

in Physick and the family
Books, bodies and the sensuous materials of the mind
Richard De Ritter

This chapter investigates the legacy of John Locke's ideas about education, reading, and identity formation. Focusing on conduct and educational literature, as well as material from the Lady's Magazine, it identifies the way in which representations of reading construct a version of female identity founded on metaphors of exchange. It subsequently describes how writers such as Mary Wollstonecraft, Mary Hays and Hannah More view reading as offering a strategic resistance to such commercial forms of identity, before turning to Charles Frognall Dibdin's paean to the printed word, Bibliomania (1809). There, expectations about reading and gender are inverted, as Dibdin goes about depicting an idealised, prudent female reader.

in Imagining women readers, 1789–1820
On the genealogy of fairy tales and the Brothers Grimm

Since the beginning of the nineteenth century folklorists, and the general public in their wake, have assumed the orality of fairy tales. This book takes an extreme position in that debate: as far as Tales of magic is concerned, the initial transmission proceded exclusively through prints. It displays the conception, ancestry and offspring of the Golden Bird dwells on the construction of the story type, the way the story found its way into the Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm's Kinder- und Hausmärchen. In the book Magician and His Pupil in which superficially magic is conquered by magic, moreover provides a counterbalance to the, at least within Europe, much more widespread warning about the dangers of occult knowledge. The possibility of a connection between Jack and the Beanstalk and a shamanistic World Tree had occurred because of the Dutch story of a Great Ship with a mast reaching into a never-never land. The Sky High Tree offers not only an example of a post-Grimm fairy tale recorded from oral presentations, it also serves the purpose of tackling the question of the age of fairy tales from a slightly different angle. The book also discusses the main problems of fairy tale research: variation, orality and, in the story's reincarnation as The Healing Fruits, the concept of the conglomerate tale. A historical approach to fairy tales has profound consequences for the organisation of one of folklore's main methodological tools, the tale-type index.

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Institutions and print
Raymond Gillespie

Overall it was the view of Ormond rather than of Orrery that prevailed. Subversive ideas which formed political subcultures were not confined to the printed word. Ballads and songs could convey politically subversive messages and might even make it into print. The sort of heterodox ideas set out in pamphlet form by a Catholic priest in a Dublin dispute in the 1620s were spread also by ‘his songs and other speeches’ according to the reports of his opponents.81 More professional ballad sellers and singers moved between fairs ‘bawling ballads and shivering with the cold

in Reading Ireland
Raymond Gillespie

context that their significance becomes clear. From this perspective the revolution which print engendered is a more complex affair, operating over a longer time-scale and as much concerned with the reception of the printed word as about its production.3 Reading as much as printing is central to this approach, yet reading, like writing or printing, was not a neutral process. Texts, whether manuscript or print, were read in particular contexts. Churches, 3 MUP/Gillespie_01_Ch1 3 15/3/05, 8:30 am The conditions of print for instance, instructed their followers how to

in Reading Ireland
Domestic recipe collections in early modern Wales
Alun Withey

exchange; oral and literate cultures interwove in complex ways as information shifted between the spoken, written and printed word, and up and down the social scale. The capacity to memorise information and recycle verbatim was key, especially given the relatively low levels of literacy. Medical recipes were a central part of this process. As Elaine Leong and Sara Pennell suggest

in Reading and writing recipe books, 1550–1800
Irish republican media activism since the Good Friday Agreement
Author: Paddy Hoey

Newspapers, magazines and pamphlets have always been central, almost sacred, forms of communication within Irish republican political culture. While social media is becoming the primary ideological battleground in many democracies, Irish republicanism steadfastly expresses itself in the traditional forms of activist journalism.

Shinners, Dissos and Dissenters is a long-term analysis of the development of Irish republican activist media since 1998 and the tumultuous years following the end of the Troubles. It is the first in-depth analysis of the newspapers, magazines and online spaces in which the differing strands of Irish republicanism developed and were articulated during a period where schism and dissent defined a return to violence.

Based on an analysis of Irish republican media outlets as well as interviews with the key activists that produced them, this book provides a compelling long-term snapshot of a political ideology in transition. It reveals how Irish Republicanism was moulded by the twin forces of the Northern Ireland Peace Process and the violent internal ideological schism that threatened a return to the ‘bad old days’ of the Troubles.

This book is vital for those studying Irish politics and those interestedin activism as it provides new insights into the role that modern activist media forms have played in the ideological development of a 200-year-old political tradition.