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German civilian and combatant internees during the First World War
Author: Panikos Panayi

This book recognizes three types of internees in First World War Britain. They are: civilians already present in the country in August 1914; civilians brought to Britain from all over the world; and combatants, primarily soldiers from the western front. Soldiers from the western front included naval personnel and a few members of zeppelin crews whose vessels fell to earth. These three groups faced different internment experiences, particularly in terms of the length of time they spent behind barbed wire and their ability to work. Many combatants viewed internment almost as a relief from the fighting they had experienced on the western front, while, for civilians, the spell behind barbed wire represented their key wartime experience. Throughout the narrative, from the first days behind barbed wire until the last, the book recognizes the varying experiences faced by the differing groups of prisoners. Nevertheless, one needs to consider all internees together because they became victims of one of the first mass incarcerations in history. While the prisoner of war has a long history, imprisonment on the scale practised in the First World War, by both Britain and the other belligerent states, of both soldiers and civilians, represents a new phenomenon.

Abstract only
Leslie C. Green

by whose forces they have been captured 5 and their rights and status are regulated in accordance with the 1949 Convention relative to the treatment of prisoners of war. 6 These rules are generally regarded as part of the customary law of armed conflict, as was pointed out in the Nuremberg Judgment , 7 so that its basic principles are binding even upon a state which has not become a party. In

in The contemporary law of armed conflict
The perpetual trap of criminalisation

In the previous chapter, we discussed the fate of victims of violence, and now we turn to those imprisoned during the conflict. Conflict-related prisoners are, for some, the embodiment of violence, and hold overall responsibility for the Troubles. So strong is this interpretation that those incarcerated during the conflict remain disbarred through legal mechanisms of control, censure and exclusion. There has been obvious leadership from within the ex-prisoner community, but also high levels of exclusion, illness

in Northern Ireland a generation after Good Friday
Cormac Behan

5 Enfranchisement – the prisoner as citizen Introduction This chapter examines the experience of enfranchisement based on interviews with 50 prisoners. Their narratives are used rather than the raw statistical data, usually associated with opinion polls and electoral surveys, which was analysed in the last chapter. It begins with an examination of topics such as prisoners and the vote, motivation behind political participation and the government decision on enfranchisement. The experience of postal voting, the facilities available, the election campaign (or lack

in Citizen convicts
Peter Shirlow, Jonathan Tonge, James McAuley, and Catherine McGlynn

The 1998 Good Friday Agreement laid down procedures for the accelerated release of prisoners affiliated to groups that had committed to a ‘complete and unequivocal ceasefire’ and acknowledged the need to ‘facilitate the reintegration of prisoners into the community by providing support both prior to and after release, including assistance directed towards availing of

in Abandoning historical conflict?
From free movement of migrants to containment in concentration camps
Paul Weindling

remain insufficiently appreciated such as barriers to migrants claiming welfare, medical controls in the 1930s, and the extent to which the Germans exploited prisoners for medical research, turning people into reservoirs of pathogens. By the late nineteenth century, systems of medical controls on migrants had become essentially permissive; they were designed to screen and sanitise the passage of persons and goods, while filtering out infectious disease carriers from transmigrant persons and their possessions. Screening concerned cleansing of those carrying an

in Medicalising borders
Cormac Behan

2 Prisoners and the politics of enfranchisement Introduction Prisoner enfranchisement remains one of the few contested electoral issues in twenty-first-century democracies. This chapter examines the politics of, and international jurisprudence on, prisoner enfranchisement. It considers jurisdictions where it has become a matter of legal quarrel and political debate. As outlined in the last chapter, the debate on prisoner enfranchisement is at the intersection of punishment and representative government, encompassing issues such as the purpose(s) of imprisonment

in Citizen convicts
Cormac Behan

3 Political change, penal continuity and prisoner enfranchisement Introduction This chapter examines prisoner enfranchisement in the Republic of Ireland. As with many of the jurisdictions considered in Chapter 2, the issue was historically, socially and politically charged, with the debates and outcomes reflecting local characteristics. The chapter begins with an outline of prisoners’ involvement in politics pre-independence, and later in that part of Ireland that achieved independence. Although prisoners were not allowed to vote for much of Irish history, this

in Citizen convicts
Peter Shirlow, Jonathan Tonge, James McAuley, and Catherine McGlynn

processes, aspects where policy learning from previous efforts to create peace may be evident. Moreover, ideas concerning the specific – and often most controversial – features of securing peace among former combatants, including amnesties, prisoner releases, decommissioning, demobilisation, institutional and policing reforms, have been transferred and imported from earlier peace processes into contemporary

in Abandoning historical conflict?
Peter Shirlow, Jonathan Tonge, James McAuley, and Catherine McGlynn

The contribution of paramilitary prisoners to conflict transformation remains a surprisingly under-stated aspect of the Northern Ireland peace process. Amid the focus upon an ambitious consociational deal between nationalist and unionist politicians and examination of the roles played by the British, Irish and American governments, the actions of those who ‘fought the war

in Abandoning historical conflict?