EU public procurement policy
The purpose of this chapter is twofold. First, it seeks to examine the emergence
and the development of the European Union’s public procurement policy,
especially the changes that it was meant to bring about at the national level.
Second, in the light of the institutionalist argument that forms the basis of this
book, it presents the national institutional structures (at the level of central
governments) that deal with public procurement policy in Greece, France and
Public procurement is an interesting case study for a
The Ceremony of Organ Harvest in Gothic Science Fiction
In organ transfer, tissue moves through a web of language. Metaphors reclassify the tissue to enable its redeployment, framing the process for practitioners and public. The process of marking off tissue as transferrable in legal and cultural terms parallels many of the processes that typically accompany commodification in late capitalism. This language of economic transformation echoes the language of Gothic ceremony, of purification and demarcation. As in literary Gothic s representations of ceremony, this economic work is anxious and the boundaries it creates unstable. This article identifies dominant metaphors shaping that ceremony of tissue reclassification, and examines how three twenty-first century novels deploy these metaphors to represent the harvest (procurement) process (the metaphor of harvest; is itself highly problematic, as I will discuss). Kazuo Ishiguros Never Let Me Go (2005), Neal Shusterman Unwind (2007), and Ninni Holmqvists Swedish novel Enhet (The Unit) (2006, translated into English in 2010) each depict vulnerable protagonists within societies where extreme tissue procurement protocols have state sanction. The texts invite us to reflect on the kinds of symbolic substitutions that help legitimate tissue transfer and the way that procurement protocols may become influenced by social imperatives. In each text, the Gothic trope of dismemberment becomes charged with new urgency.
increased their procurement capacities under sanctions ( Park and Walsh, 2016 ). This is demonstrative of the ‘double-edged’ sword of sanctions that appears in academic discourse. Other examples include the argument that the international sanctions regime restricts the DPRK’s ability to integrate into the world economy, but may also inhibit domestic economic reform ( Gray and Lee, 2017 ), and that while US sanctions have restricted DPRK economic growth, it is to the detriment of the North Korean people and their standard of living ( Kim, 2014 ). Scholarship has also
How Can Humanitarian Analysis, Early Warning and Response Be
Aditya Sarkar, Benjamin J. Spatz, Alex de Waal, Christopher Newton, and Daniel Maxwell
. Operationally, the PMF may be useful in assessing the
interactions of humanitarian logistics, procurement and other enabling activities
with a PM, such as through roadblock politics or the money exchange market. It may
also support efforts to maintain the security and safety of humanitarian staff,
assets and the people they serve while engaged in humanitarian activities.
Overall, the PMF is not an analytical panacea. It requires resources to be invested
in research and analysis and
Lessons Learned for Engagement in Fragile and Conflict-Affected States
be missed. For example, livelihood projects not aligned with the agricultural season, and without lead time for procurement, may result in a ‘lost’ year as the critical entry point in the agricultural cycle is missed. Donors and NGOs must acknowledge ‘the primacy of the seasons in annual planning’ ( IAHE, 2015 : 9).
Flexibility . The complexity and uncertainties of the operational environment in South Sudan necessitates adaptiveness in programming and an ability to adjust in a swift manner. Donors and implementing organisations need to plan for unexpected changes
In spring 1990, Greece had a new conservative government after eight years of socialist rule. Two broad strategies to steer post-transposition implementation can be envisaged. First, governments may seek to be more pro-active by taking account of the exigencies of implementation in previous stages of the Eoropean Union (EU) policy process. Second, they may adopt specific measures such as the recruitment of more and better trained staff, which shall seek to ensure better implementation at street-level. This book sets out to examine the first strategy in an effort to draw wider lessons regarding the development of the process of European integration. Specifically, it seeks to examine the way in which national central governments deal with the exigencies of the implementation of EU public policy. Focusing on the central governments of Greece, France and the UK and the case of public procurement, it provides an institutionalist account of the dynamics of implementation. Patterns of implementation mirror the way in which these actors participate in the formulation of EU public policy. Drawing on implementation theory, the concept of macro-implementation is introduced. Next, the book examines the patterns of institutional change in the concrete cases of Greece, France and the UK. It presents the EU's public procurement policy and maps the institutional terrain in the three central governments with a focus on the handling of public procurement policy. After discussing the transposition of EU public procurement directives in Greece, France and the UK, the book looks at their macro-implementation between 1981 and 2006.
The purpose of this chapter is twofold. First, it examines the impact of
central government institutions (especially their co-ordination capacity) on
the domestic patterns of implementation. Second, it seeks to shed light
on the dynamics of these patterns over a period of twenty-ﬁve years.
Greece: N.A.T.O. in action
The process of change that underpins the implementation of EU public
procurement policy in Greece has
Social enterprise and third sector activity have mushroomed into a prolific area of academic research and discourse over the past 20 years, with many claiming their origins rooted in Blair, New Labour and Giddens’ ‘Third Way’. But many academic contributions lack experience of policy implementation and do not access the wealth of grey, legacy and public policy literature from earlier periods which supports different interpretations. Since most make few references to developments during the 1970s and 1980s, their narrow focus on New Labour from 1997 onwards not only neglects real antecedents, but miscasts the role of social enterprise. Adopting a Critical Realist approach, the author had access to previously unused hardcopy documents from archives and collections and interviewed key players and key actors between 1998 and 2002, when major social enterprise and third sector policy changes occurred. During a key political period from 1998 to 2002, Blair’s New Labour governments forced through a major conceptual shift for social enterprise, co-operative and third sector activity. Many structures, formed as community responses to massive deindustrialisation in the 1970s and 1980s, were repositioned to bid against the private sector to obtain contracts for delivery of low-cost public services. Other UK academic contributions draw parallels with North American individual social entrepreneurs or rely excessively on interpretations from L’Emergence de l’Entreprise Sociale en Europe (EMES) Research Network, which prioritises a marketised version of “work integration social enterprises” (WISEs). So the restoration of political and economic democracy has been denied to many local communities.
patterns of implementation in the EU, the literature
on the so-called ‘Europeanisation’ of the nation state and the development of
The differential dynamics of implementation
The liberalisation of public procurement in the EU entails the transposition
and implementation of the EU’s directives at the national level. This process
is steered (macro-implementation) by the central governments of the member
states. In the light of the fact that (a) implementation is inextricably linked to
the formulation of policy and, therefore, necessitates a signiﬁcant
quantity and quality of military equipment – ‘the
kit’ in popular military parlance – always commands press
and public attention. The number of ships, tanks and aircraft that
Britain fields seems more noteworthy than the weapons they carry, or the
intelligence and control systems that back them up, still less the
number and quality of the people who operate them. Yet as military
equipment gets ever more expensive, the numbers of ships, tanks and
aircraft that Britain procures has inevitably