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A critical reader in history and theory, second edition
Authors: Anna Green and Kathleen Troup

Every piece of historical writing has a theoretical basis on which evidence is selected, filtered, and understood. This book explores the theoretical perspectives and debates that are generally acknowledged to have been the most influential within the university-led practice of history over the past century and a half. It advises readers to bear in mind the following four interlinked themes: context, temporal framework, causation or drivers of change, and subjectivities. The book outlines the principles of empiricism, the founding epistemology of the professional discipline, and explores the ways in which historians have challenged and modified this theory of knowledge over the past century and a half. It then focuses upon three important dimensions of historical materialism in the work of Marxist historians: the dialectical model at the basis of Marx's grand narrative of human history; the adaptations of Marxist theory in Latin America; and the enduring question of class consciousness. The use of psychoanalysis in history, the works of Annales historians and historical sociology is discussed next. The book also examines the influence of two specific approaches that were to be fertile ground for historians: everyday life and symbolic anthropology, and ethnohistory. The roles of narrative, gender history, radical feminism, poststructuralism and postcolonial history are also discussed. Finally, the book outlines the understandings about the nature of memory and remembering, and looks at key developments in the analysis and interpretation of oral histories and oral traditions.

Rhodri Hayward

’s self. Within the 32 The invention of the unconscious new professional discipline of history, interpretations only became acceptable if they could demonstrate that the interpreted object was somehow insulated from the infective or partisan concerns of the interpreter. Yet while the authority of the professional historian’s self (like that of the kenotic Christ) might rest on its finite circumscription, alternative ways of historical knowing were also possible.13 At the precise moment that the historical profession emerged, the clairvoyant and the medium were

in Resisting history
Abstract only
Anna Green and Kathleen Troup

Empiricism is both a theory of knowledge, an epistemology, and a method of historical enquiry. The core tenets of empirical history remained deeply influential among the historical profession throughout the twentieth century. An exclusive emphasis upon the core principles of empirical epistemology may lead historians to reject understandings of the past based upon different types of historical sources, such as oral tradition or material culture. This chapter outlines the principles of empiricism, the founding epistemology of the professional discipline, and explores the ways in which historians have challenged and modified this theory of knowledge over the past century and a half. It presents an example of empiricist history, taken from one of Geoffrey Elton's most influential works, England Under the Tudors, first published in 1955. His corpus of work focuses primarily upon administrative history, and he also become one of the leading defenders of empiricism as a theory of knowledge.

in The houses of history
Open Access (free)
Christine E. Hallett

Nurses’ First World War memoirs offer significant insights into the suffering endured by the war’s wounded and document the power of professional nursing in alleviating such suffering. They reveal both the tensions inherent in the relationship between professional and volunteer nurses and the ways in which these were often overcome to permit a close and supportive partnership. The social and professional backgrounds of nurses and volunteers had a significant impact on the ways in which they wrote about their wartime nursing experiences. Professionals were more likely to write about their patients than themselves; while volunteers offered sometimes harsh critiques of professional discipline while, at the same time, revealing their fascination with the power of nursing practice. Nurses wrote about their travels and adventures as well as about their nursing work, and some of their texts can be seen to have a ‘heretical’ quality: a few offer powerful exposes of the horror and futility of war.

in Nurse Writers of the Great War
Historians and their personae in the Portuguese New State
António da Silva Rêgo

Portugal, the professionalization of history took place later than in most other European countries. Starting in the 1910s, it was clearly discernible only by the 1940s. It was in this period that historical activity transformed from a relatively solitary activity, practiced by ‘men of letters’, into a more collective enterprise, with historians working together in a ‘professionalizeddiscipline. At the same time, in 1926, a military dictatorship was established, which in 1933 turned into the New State, a fascist regime that lasted until 1974.1 Characterized by a

in How to be a historian
Abstract only
Anna Green and Kathleen Troup

) to deepen your understanding of the vocabulary of theory, and historians’ names to expand your knowledge of both the context and the focus of their research. The next chapter outlines the principles of empiricism, the founding epistemology of the professional discipline, and explores the ways in which historians have challenged and modified this theory of knowledge over the past century and a half. Notes 1 Geoff Eley, A Crooked Line: From Cultural History to the History of Society (Ann Arbor, 2005), p. ix. 2 George Orwell, Nineteen Eighty

in The houses of history
Global prospects for the development of co-operatives as instruments of consumer- centred health care
Vern Hughes

and regulated it. Disciplinary boundaries between professions and functions existed but did not define the structure of health-care provision or its ownership. From the vantage point of the early twenty-first century, it is difficult to comprehend the scope and scale of consumer sovereignty in health care that these structures represented. The contemporary fragmentation in health delivery by professional discipline now runs very deep, and is buttressed by practitioner-controlled accreditation and regulatory regimes (oriented to restricting supply), often with

in Mainstreaming co-operation
Clare Wilkinson and Emma Weitkamp

these conversations have included the idea of ‘public’ disciplines such as ‘public sociology’ and ‘public criminology’, encouraging professional disciplines to think about how they can engage with publics and stakeholders outside academia, and what responsibilities they have regarding wider public agendas (Loader and Sparks, 2011 ; Braga et al. , 2008 ; Sprague, 2008 ; Turner, 2007 ; Burawoy, 2005 ). These approaches seek to encourage academics to actively participate in public debates of relevance to their fields, providing their knowledge in more public ways

in Creative research communication
Nanna Mik-Meyer

few key themes within the sociology of professions, which are particularly relevant for analyses of welfare encounters (e.g., Abbott 1988; Dingwall and Lewis 2014). This short presentation is followed by a discussion of the scholarly literature that centres around how norms outside the professional disciplines affect the work of the professionals (e.g., Broadbent et al. 1997; Freidson 2004; Noordegraaf 2007; Evetts 2009a; Liljegren 2012). Finally, the chapter concludes by discussing the work of scholars who address the subject matters of expertise, de

in The power of citizens and professionals in welfare encounters
The question of evidence
Christine Choo

history as a professional discipline, and the value of the processes, method and analysis techniques of professional historians, who are not simply ‘gatherers of facts’. In the context of litigation for native title, the legal profession and the courts appear to be leaning towards such a limited view of professional historians as ‘gatherers of facts’, with the lawyer taking on the

in Law, history, colonialism