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British military nursing in the Crimean War
Carol Helmstadter

1 Class, gender and professional expertise: British military nursing in the Crimean War Carol Helmstadter Modern historians have suggested that nursing in the Crimean War was largely a form of housekeeping and that the only major contributions made by the female nurses whom the government sent to the East were the introduction of night nursing and small personal attentions to the soldiers.1 Certainly, the roots of hospital nursing did lie in domestic service but did military nursing in the 1850s really largely consist of household duties? War and other

in One hundred years of wartime nursing practices, 1854–1953
Open Access (free)
Governing Precarity through Adaptive Design
Mark Duffield

the West’s urbicidal wars, a new and optimistic, less direct but technologically updated humanitarianism has confidently stepped forth. More de-risked and requiring less professional expertise than the labour-intensive direct engagement of the past, it is a cheaper Western humanitarianism designed for connectivity rather than circulation. Often called humanitarian innovation ( ALNAP, 2009 ; Betts and Bloom, 2014 ), a feature of this new humanitarianism is its enthusiastic embrace of adaptive design ( Ramalingam et al ., 2014 ; HPG, 2018

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
The influence of bureaucracy, market and psychology

Since the 1990s, European welfare states have undergone substantial changes regarding their objectives, areas of intervention and instruments of use. There has been an increasing move towards the prioritisation of the involvement of citizens and the participation of civil society. This book focuses on the altered (powerful) conditions for encounters between citizens and welfare workers. It uses the concept of soft power, which, inter alia, allows for the investigations of the ways in which individuals manipulate each other in an effort to achieve their desired goals. The first part of the book discusses extracts from state-of-the-art research on professions and expertise, and the perception of power that guides the analyses. It also discusses the overall theoretical positioning when analysing encounters between welfare workers and citizens as co-productive and interactionist. The second part presents analyses to show how a bureaucratic context affects the encounter between administrators and clients, and how a market context affects the encounter between service providers and consumers/customers. The analysis of how a psychology-inspired context affects the encounter between coaches and coaches is also provided. All three contexts are to be perceived as Weberian ideal types, in other words, theoretical constructs based on observations of the real world. The concluding part of the book emphasises on the role of the principles of the bureaucracy, the norms from psychology, and the values of the market in the welfare encounter. Key points of the book are summarised in the conclusion.

Abstract only
Pasts, present, futures
Michael Brown

be unmade. Never has this been more evident than today. As Perkin, writing under the long shadow of Thatcherism, clearly recognised, the postwar period was not simply another step on the ever-upward trajectory of 228 Performing medicine professional expertise. It was, instead, the ‘plateau of professional society’, the short-lived triumph of technocracy.19 As statism and welfarism gave way to a reinvigorated economism, to an unswerving faith in the operations of the free market, the medical profession found its political authority and clinical autonomy

in Performing medicine
Timothy Edmunds

professional expertise. These had remained largely unreformed since the SFRJ period, and determined by the demands of authoritarianism and territorial war fighting rather than democratisation and peace. Second, all organisations in the FRJ security sector confronted negative past legacies in relation to questions of ethics and responsibility. Here the challenges if anything went even deeper

in Security sector reform in transforming societies
Tim Markham

or overt moralising. Together, these features suggest an economy of moral authority in which the authenticity of personal experience is valued more highly than institutional, professional expertise. This authentic artlessness is presented as naturalised selfhood, but is predicated on specific linguistic practices, the most common of which were irony (‘I’ll say this about Tibetans, at least they’re not polar bears’), rhetorical ‘plain speaking’ (‘frankly’, ‘I’m sorry, but’), vitriol, self-deprecation, 3681 The Politics of war reporting.qxd:Layout 1 How do

in The politics of war reporting
Anna Bocking-Welch

members’. 83 Rotary and the WI did not suggest that learning about foreign spaces could not continue to be entertaining; meetings were always approached as opportunities for enjoyment as well as self-improvement. But, over the course of the 1960s, they did place increasing emphasis on both the depth and usability of the knowledge that members were expected to acquire through international engagement activities. Usable knowledge: colonial know-how, professional expertise and voluntary experience By the mid-1960s it was commonly

in British civic society at the end of empire
Alison Lewis

This chapter investigates examples of literary case studies by Alfred Döblin, a medical doctor and a main representative of the 1920s ‘New Objectivity’ aesthetic movement in Weimar Germany. Like fellow poet Gottfried Benn, Döblin brought his professional expertise in medicine to bear on his literary projects. Whereas his contemporaries were preoccupied with questions of social justice, Döblin was particularly interested in gender relations and the nexus between sexuality and crime, and used literature as a metaphorical laboratory to explore shocking and topical themes of the day. With his realistic case studies based on trials and his own expert knowledge of psychiatry, sexology and psychoanalysis, Döblin strove to bridge the gap between highbrow literature and the new empirical life sciences, as well as between his medical practice and his love of literature. His work demonstrates both the benefits and limits of the case study genre as a vehicle for transporting new forms of knowledge. While his attempts to refashion the literary case study as a crime novel by incorporating the latest theories about the human psyche and female homosexuality were of limited success, he achieved greater success with Berlin Alexanderplatz, a modernist novel about crime and sex in the metropolis.

in A history of the case study
Medical practitioners, opticians and popular responses to sight loss, 1880–1904
Gemma Almond-Brown

This chapter shines light on how mass production of spectacles expanded the spectacle market outside medical control. It analyses the tensions and shared concerns that emerged between opticians and medical men concerning professional jurisdiction over an increasingly lucrative market. It draws upon material culture and a broad and extensive range of archival and digital sources: advertisements, medical texts, medical journals, The Optician, opticians’ texts, newspapers and periodicals. It argues that the 1890s were an intense period of inter- and intra-professional debate between ophthalmologists and opticians. In exploring popular responses to sight loss, it demonstrates that, while opticians were effective in maintaining their position as experts, both opticians’ and medical practitioners’ authority as experts was challenged by the increasing availability of spectacles amongst miscellaneous high street retailers and conflicting popular advice. Spectacles were a uniquely common and ubiquitous assistive device and popular beliefs that the dispenser did not need to possess professional expertise continued to circulate. Opticians and ophthalmologists increasingly collaborated to regulate dispensing practices against a backlash and popular demand for cheap or high-end stylish frames on the high street that paid little consideration to their efficacy or functionality.

in Spectacles and the Victorians
Masahiro Mogaki

-monopoly regulation capacity. The steady staff and budget increases for the JFTC offer a contrast to the professional expertise of the staff. A number of interviewees gave negative views regarding the professional expertise of the JFTC’s staff from a couple of viewpoints. The above retired JFTC senior civil servant, for instance, highlighted the lack of employees with professional training: The JFTC officials are kind of generalists, and their posts frequently change. So it is hard to develop people like those specialised in and very  good at mergers and acquisitions. But other

in Understanding governance in contemporary Japan