Stage women, 1900–50 explores the many ways in which women conceptualised, constructed and participated in networks of professional practice in the theatre and performance industries between 1900 and 1950. A timely volume full of original research, the book explores women’s complex negotiations of their agency over both their labour and public representation, and their use of personal and professional networks to sustain their careers. Including a series of case studies that explore a range of well-known and lesser-known women working in theatre, film and popular performance of the period. The volume is divided into two connected parts. ‘Female theatre workers in the social and theatrical realm’ looks at the relationship between women’s work – on- and offstage – and autobiography, activism, technique, touring, education and the law. Part II, ‘Women and popular performance’, focuses on the careers of individual artists, once household names, including Lily Brayton, Ellen Terry, radio star Mabel Constanduros, and Oscar-winning film star Margaret Rutherford. Overall, the book provides new and vibrant cultural histories of women’s work in the theatre and performance industries of the period.
For much of the twentieth century women police often played a key role in the detection and prevention of child abuse, neglect and the 'policing of families'. This book examines the professional roles, identities, activities and experiences of women police in the United Kingdom. It comments on the gendering of modern surveillance technologies, on the relationship between justice and welfare, and on the changing situation of women in the twentieth century. The book shows that assumptions about class, status, gender and sexuality were both challenged and reinforced by women police. Although institutional structures and hierarchies - including those of gender -shaped the women police officers' professional experiences, the senior officers achieved considerable success in creating their own professional networks. The book examines the status and 'respectability' associated with women's work in the police service, and focuses on personal testimony in order to discuss women's perceptions of themselves. It analyses women's operations within the technologies of physical surveillance, dealing with both uniform beat patrol and undercover observations. The regulation of specific groups was done through policewomen's 'specialist' role: firstly, the policing of family, youth and child welfare; and secondly, the regulation of sexuality in relation to adult women. Given that police duties were shaped by legislative frameworks and by institutional strategies, opportunities to transform daily practice were ultimately limited. Despite positive and approbatory statements from women officers regarding integration, women as a whole were far less likely to be promoted than male colleagues in the 1970s and 1980s.
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eligible to join; you’re not an actress!’ But Gertrude [Elliott],
who was always ready to help, said, ‘Why don’t you come and walk on in
The High Bid at Her Majesty’s Theatre.’ And so I went on in one of the
crowd scenes … that was my first appearance on the London stage and as
soon as I could say I was an actress I became a member of the League.16
Comfort gained not only a West End credit, highly desirable for any aspiring performer, from Gertrude Elliott’s generosity, but a valuable starting
point with which to begin to create her own professionalnetwork in the
professionalnetworks that cut
across individual police forces. These networks were strengthened after
1945 with the appointment of the ﬁrst woman as an Assistant to His
Majesty’s Inspectors (HMIs) of Constabulary. This appointment was to
prove decisive in the expansion of women’s work in policing and in the
standardisation of their duties.
The ﬁgure of the chief policeman – titled ‘chief constable’ in provincial forces, ‘commissioner’ in the Met, and ‘inspector general’ in the RUC
(until replaced with the designation of chief constable in 1970) – looms
large in this account
The chapter highlights not only why it is important to share best practice with the research communication community, but also how readers might further disseminate their work though approaches like reports, conferences, publication and professional networks. It considers the ‘conundrum’ of communicating about research communication or engaging about engagement. The chapter finishes with a short summary of the key points of the book and some final encouraging, motivational, and confidence building insights that will enable readers to make the best use of the approaches outlined.
This chapter explores the personal and professional networks created by female theatre practitioners in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century through a detailed case study of Gabrielle Enthoven – actor, playwright, translator and theatre collector. Born into privilege, Enthoven was the daughter of a colonial administrator who grew up in Egypt and the Sudan. She lived in Windsor, met Oscar Wilde and played with the royal children, spending her twenties messing about on boats and in theatres with the local soldiers. She then married and moved to Chelsea and began to network with theatre and arts professionals before devoting her life and wealth to creating a world-class collection of theatre ephemera that she donated to the Victoria and Albert Museum in London.
Interactional strategies in late-nineteenth-century Classical archaeology:
the case of Adolf Furtwängler
Ulf R. Hansson
This chapter examines collegiality and the instrumentality of informal
networks in the production of knowledge around 1900 as exemplified by the
German classical archaeologist Adolf Furtwängler (1853–1907). Based on a
relatively well documented case from the formative period in the modern
history of Classical archaeology, this chapter explores how and to what
extent various dynamic processes within the discipline can be affected when
a key actor in the system for some reason withdraws or is excluded from the
social aspects of the profession. Although Furtwängler was one of the most
prolific and influential Classical archaeologists of his generation, his
wide-ranging contribution is little discussed in the discipline’s modern
histories, for various reasons. Based on substantial unpublished archive
material that permits a detailed reconstruction of his professional networks
and work methods, this chapter discusses Furtwängler’s problematic
interaction with the scholarly community and his various strategies for
creating and maintaining professional relations with institutions and
individuals considered indispensable for his own work.
What happens when the image factory looks in the mirror? This chapter is framed around an illustration of a wood engraver, made for a children’s encyclopaedia, which can be read as a notional self-portrait. It investigates the concept of self-portraiture within a collective and commercial medium like wood engraving, and tells the story of the five Dalziel siblings involved in Dalziel Brothers: George, Edward, Margaret, John and Thomas. Reappropriating the archive’s wordless illustrations – particularly to Wordsworth’s poetry – and developing creative reading strategies, the chapter proposes ways of remembering Margaret and John Dalziel, skilled engravers whose roles were crucial (especially Margaret as a senior woman engraver) though evidence about them is limited. George and Edward’s work as founders and leaders of Dalziel are materially read in their albums, as are Thomas’s contributions as a draughtsman and in-house art educator. The chapter considers archival evidence of Thomas Dalziel’s illustrative method when approaching A Thousand and One Nights. The final family member considered in the chapter is an employee, Alice Gladden, who worked in the engraving factory as a 12-year-old nursemaid, and who here becomes a catalyst to re-read Dalziel’s wood engravings for Carroll’s Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland. This chapter asks what it was like to live and work in the image business, uncovering family ties, friendships and professional networks. With reference to Michael Fried’s recent work on painted self-portraits (2010), it thinks through the practicalities of a collaborative self-portrait of a working wood engraver.
Women Art Workers constitutes the first comprehensive history of the network of women who worked at the heart of the English Arts and Crafts movement from the 1870s to the 1930s. Challenging the long-standing assumption that the Arts and Crafts simply revolved around celebrated male designers like William Morris, this book instead offers a new social and cultural account of the movement, which simultaneously reveals the breadth of the imprint of women art workers upon the making of modern society. Thomas provides unprecedented insight into how women – working in fields such as woodwork, textiles, sculpture, painting, and metalwork – navigated new authoritative roles as ‘art workers’ by asserting expertise across a range of interconnected cultures so often considered in isolation: from the artistic to the professional, intellectual, entrepreneurial, and domestic. Through examination of newly discovered institutional archives and private papers, and a wide range of unstudied advertisements, letters, manuals, photographs, and calling cards, Women Art Workers elucidates the critical importance of the spaces around which women conceptualised alternative creative and professional lifestyles: guild halls, exhibitions, homes, studios, workshops, and the cityscape. Shattering the traditional periodisation of the movement as ‘Victorian’, this research reveals that the early twentieth century was a critical juncture at which women art workers became ever more confident in promoting their own vision of the Arts and Crafts. Shaped by their precarious gendered positions, they opened up the movement to a wider range of social backgrounds and interests, and redirected the movement’s radical potential into contemporary women-centred causes.