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Anthony Musson

society but who, because of their knowledge and position, had a special duty towards it. This chapter examines the extent to which the professionalisation of the law inculcated and encouraged ways of thinking about the law and legal practice. It looks, first, at the provision of legal education and the growth of an intellectual domain and, secondly, at avenues of promotion or advancement within the

in Medieval law in context
Nanna Mik-Meyer

2 Professions, de-professionalisation and welfare work Introduction As stated in the introduction, the concept of welfare worker makes it p ­ ossible to analyse the encounter between citizens and a broad group of people: those who have both long (professionals) and short (semi-­professionals) educations, as well as employees without any formal training for conducting welfare work. An important feature – and common denominator – of these people is that their work lives involve (or even revolve around) encounters with citizens in welfare institutions, encounters

in The power of citizens and professionals in welfare encounters
Author:

Victorian medical men could suffer numerous setbacks on their individual paths to professionalisation, and Thomas Elkanah Hoyle's career offers a telling exemplar. This book addresses a range of the financial, professional, and personal challenges that faced and sometimes defeated the aspiring medical men of England and Wales. Spanning the decades 1780-1890, from the publication of the first medical directory to the second Medical Registration Act, it considers their careers in England and Wales, and in the Indian Medical Service. The book questions the existing picture of broad and rising medical prosperity across the nineteenth century to consider the men who did not keep up with professionalising trends. Financial difficulty was widespread in medical practice, and while there are only a few who underwent bankruptcy or insolvency identified among medical suicides, the fear of financial failure could prove a powerful motive for self-destruction. The book unpicks the life stories of men such as Henry Edwards, who could not sustain a professional persona of disinterested expertise. In doing so it uncovers the trials of the medical marketplace and the pressures of medical masculinity. The book also considers charges against practitioners that entailed their neglect, incompetence or questionable practice which occasioned a threat to patients' lives. The occurrence and reporting of violent crime by medical men, specifically serious sexual assault and murder is also discussed. A tiny proportion of medical practitioners also experienced life as a patient in an asylum.

Emma Tomalin
and
Olivia Wilkinson

( Swidler, 2013 ; Burchardt, 2013 ). In these interactions, LFAs imbibe the logic and rationality of international humanitarianism and, as Swidler writes, ‘learn not to pursue their own goals, but to feign an interest in whatever donors are offering, in hopes that, however unpredictably, some resources will come their way’ (2013: 685). Alongside this, we reflect upon the ways in which the processes of NGO-isation and professionalisation that accompany the

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Louise Beaumais

Do humanitarian workers really trust numbers? In the realm of the DATAWAR research project, this article aims to investigate the interest that humanitarian workers have developed towards quantitative data in the last two decades. The ‘needology’ approach (), growing expectations of donors since the 2000s, and the professionalisation and rationalisation of the humanitarian field are all factors that have contributed to the massive use of quantitative data. Discourses promoting ‘evidence-based humanitarianism’ have fostered massive hope in the humanitarian community: a good use of quantitative data could enhance contextual analyses, intervention monitoring or even the safety and security of humanitarian workers. However, this study has discovered that these narratives overestimate the ease with which humanitarian workers deal with numbers. In fact, it shows that the use of quantitative data is mainly determined by a specific, restrictive, hierarchically oriented evidence-based system which nurtures bottom-up accountability rather than day-to-day project management. As a result, the datafication of the humanitarian field does not seem to have been accompanied by an improvement of the data literacy of humanitarian workers.

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Editor’s Introduction
Michaël Neuman
,
Fernando Espada
, and
Róisín Read

. These reflections may be at odds with how the professionalisation of security has given rise to a separate set of security concerns and actors, or, in other words, how the issue of humanitarian security has largely been addressed as an isolated and distinct issue. But what all the contributions to the issue demonstrate is that humanitarian security is not and cannot ever be tackled separately from broader humanitarian dynamics. Another feature of many discourses on humanitarian security is that

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Editor’s Introduction
Juliano Fiori

imperatives of the New Public Management. And NGOs used these reforms to accelerate the professionalisation of the aid sector ( Fiori et al ., 2016 ). But at the turn of the millennium, there were indications of a downturn in the influence of humanitarian ideas on Western geostrategy. The strategic value of humanitarian intervention diminished as the US launched its totalising war on terror. Humanitarianism was little more than an afterthought to the invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq. Since then, despite the continued rise in donations to

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
A Model for Historical Reflection in the Humanitarian Sector
Kevin O’Sullivan
and
Réiseal Ní Chéilleachair

. ( 2016 ), ‘ Minor Miracle or Historic Failure Ahead for UN ’, Refugees Deeply , 8 August, www.newsdeeply.com/refugees/community/2016/08/08/long-read-minor-miracle-or-historic-failure-ahead-for-u-n-summit (accessed 25 July 2018) . Dauvin , P. ( 2004 ), ‘ On Being a Humanitarian Aid Worker under an Imposed Code of Professionalisation ’, Revue

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Staff Security and Civilian Protection in the Humanitarian Sector
Miriam Bradley

( Bugnion, 2003 : 125–6; Taithe, 2016 : 43–7). However, it is over the past thirty years that these concerns have been addressed by increasingly professionalised approaches ( Gentile, 2011 ; Neuman, 2016a : 26-28; Stoddard et al. , 2006 : 21–35). The expansion and professionalisation of efforts to protect the local civilian population in contexts of armed conflict is evident in the range of policy statements, handbooks and guidelines ( Global Protection

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Arjun Claire

with decision-makers and influencers to secure incremental outcomes. Advocacy also represents a professionalisation of activism, manifest in the emergence of a new broker class to represent the interests of third parties – advocacy is largely done on behalf of someone, whereas activists often tend to have a material stake in the issue ( de Waal, 2015 : 23). Humanitarian advocacy can be defined as a process or a series of actions aimed at influencing

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs