Immigrants in the Irish public sphere
Neil O’Boyle

7 Politics, professions and participation: immigrants in the Irish public sphere Neil O’Boyle This chapter examines the particular case of African immigrants in Ireland as a means of reflecting more generally on tolerance and intolerance in Irish political and civic life (Honohan and Rougier, 2012). Tolerance and intolerance are multidimensional, dialectical processes which operate at all levels of society and which are manifest explicitly and implicitly in all political cultures. At the collective level, tolerance and intolerance are materialised in immigration

in Tolerance and diversity in Ireland, North and South
The origins and endurance of club regulation
Duncan Wilson

1 Ethics ‘by and for professions’: the origins and endurance of club regulation Doctors and scientists successfully argued that they should be left to determine their own conduct during the nineteenth and much of the twentieth centuries, in a form of self-governance that Michael Moran terms ‘club regulation’.1 They portrayed medical and scientific ethics as internal concerns in this period – produced ‘by and for’ colleagues and mainly concerned with limiting intra-professional conflicts.2 This view of ethics functioned as what Harold Perkin calls a ‘strategy of

in The making of British bioethics
Rousseau’s and nationalism
Mads Qvortrup

4 A civic profession of faith: Rousseau’s and nationalism When Heinrich Heine, the German poet, visited Italy in 1828 he noted in his diary: It is as if World History is seeking to become spiritual … she has a great task. What it is? It is emancipation. Not just the emancipation of the Irish, the Greeks, the Jews and the Blacks of the West Indies. No, the emancipation of the whole world, especially in Europe, where the peoples have reached maturity. (Heine quoted in Gell 1998: 13) In seeking national self-determination Heine was preaching a new doctrine, one

in The political philosophy of Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Nanna Mik-Meyer

2 Professions, de-professionalisation and welfare work Introduction As stated in the introduction, the concept of welfare worker makes it p ­ ossible to analyse the encounter between citizens and a broad group of people: those who have both long (professionals) and short (semi-­professionals) educations, as well as employees without any formal training for conducting welfare work. An important feature – and common denominator – of these people is that their work lives involve (or even revolve around) encounters with citizens in welfare institutions, encounters

in The power of citizens and professionals in welfare encounters
Laura Kelly

1 Debates surrounding women’s admission to the medical profession Let British degrees continue to be of perfectly definite value; make the conditions as stringent as you please, but let them be such as are attainable by all students, and are clearly understood by the general public; and then, for all that would worthily win and wear the desired honours, ‘a fair field and no favour’. Is there not one of the English, Scotch or Irish Universities that will win future laurels by now taking the lead generously, and announcing its willingness to cease, at last, its

in Irish women in medicine, c.1880s–1920s
Susan Mullaney

During the eighteenth century, the status of Dublin surgeons and apothecaries underwent a transformation. Having been long regarded as mere tradesmen, by the end of the century they were perceived as being members of a profession and both groups had initiated countrywide regulation of their professions. In the case of the apothecaries, the Irish parliament approved the relevant legislation twenty-four years prior to the enactment of similar legislation in Britain. This chapter will trace the rapid evolution of the

in Early Modern Ireland and the world of medicine
Michael Foley

2 How journalism became a profession Michael Foley It was not inevitable that in 1922 Ireland would emerge from more than a century of political and social struggles as a democracy, but it did for many and complex reasons, one of which was the press and how it evolved throughout the nineteenth century. Understanding how the press and journalism developed tells a lot about social development in Ireland, and also sheds light on a media that came of age in a colonial context that was very different from journalism in the two other main English speaking countries

in Irish journalism before independence
James McDermott

6 Directing heads, sole traders and the professions It is doubtful whether Tribunals in general had more difficult cases than these to deal with.1 Following the call to arms in August 1914, many businessmen responded enthusiastically, forming recruitment and drilling leagues, or joining bespoke units of like-minded men ‘in a way of business’. In Leeds alone, a 1200–strong battalion principally comprising members (of all ‘ranks’) of the business community was formed, while the four battalions of the Liverpool Pals and the eight battalions of the Manchester Pals

in British Military Service Tribunals, 1916–1918
Kate Bradley

1 Making free legal aid and advice the business of state and profession Until the beginning of the twentieth century, poorer Britons had access to the civil law in the High Court through the in forma pauperis procedure, a provision established in the thirteenth century that enabled those who declared themselves as paupers to be given legal support free of charge. The procedure was infrequently used, as it required the lawyers to act for free, with all incurred expenses to be met from their pockets. By the early twentieth century, the legal profession had

in Lawyers for the poor
Abstract only
Dental Degeneracy and the Savage Mouth
Clayton Carlyle Tarr

At roughly the same time that dentistry became a respected profession, teeth became a sign of biological origin. In the nineteenth century, long, white, uniform teeth signalled the threat of degeneracy, a counter narrative to evolution predicated on humanity‘s decline into a primitive, animalistic state. We can trace this anxiety through depictions of native people‘s teeth in travel narratives, slave narratives, and accounts of the auction block. The distinctly menacing mouths of white characters, such as Poe‘s Berenice and Dickens‘s Carker, draw on the fear of degeneracy— a threat to Western civilisation that coalesces in depictions of the vampiric mouth.

Gothic Studies