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Christopher Duggan

2 The propagation of the cult of the Duce, 1925–26 Christopher Duggan The rapid development of the cult of the Duce in 1925–26 was in many respects the cornerstone on which the subsequent regime was built. It did not emerge from nothing: Mussolini had long been regarded by his followers, whether socialist before the war or Fascist from 1919, as an exceptional personality. But the speed with which Mussolini was transformed from the vulnerable and vacillating figure of the Matteotti crisis in the second half of 1924 into the ‘man of providence’, able to survive

in The cult of the Duce
Open Access (free)
The Politics of Infectious Disease
Duncan McLean and Michaël Neuman

environment, particularly when subsequent developments are considered. The dominant medical paradigm of the day deemed that miasma , essentially foul odours, was responsible for the propagation of illness. While this resulted in the ostentatious display of various aromatic herbs, garlic and so on, improved ventilation – be it in courtrooms, prisons or poor urban dwellings – was largely ignored. Compounding the problem was the subsequent establishment of property taxes based on the number of windows in

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Lessons Learned from an Intervention by Médecins Sans Frontières
Maria Ximena Di Lollo, Elena Estrada Cocina, Francisco De Bartolome Gisbert, Raquel González Juarez, and Ana Garcia Mingo

with a high turnover of people entering and exiting these facilities; these conditions are particularly conducive to propagation of infection ( European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, 2020 ). The risks to those living in care homes is reflected in the alarming statistics. During the first weeks of the pandemic in Spain, more than 6 per cent of the overall care home population (333,920) died due to COVID-19 or with symptoms consistent with the disease

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Visual Advocacy in the Early Decades of Humanitarian Cinema
Valérie Gorin

– the propagation of a particular doctrine, practice, or ideology, such as the humanitarian movement and its principles. These movies sometimes led to substantial financial outcomes, with more than £60,000 raised for Famine in Russia after two years of exploitation, and £500,000 raised during the campaign that followed New Worlds for Old ( Tusan, 2017 : 223, 227). But rather than effective fundraising tools, these films more often seemed to fit ‘political motives’ ( Palmieri, 2019 : 94). They operated in a moral economy in which images served several purposes

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Abstract only
British imperial civil aviation, 1919–39
Author: Gordon Pirie

The whole business of British air transport during the period of 1919-1939 was infused with muddle, belt-and-braces attitudes and old-fashioned company ideas. The conditions of inter-war Britain militated against new technology, fresh approach to management, organization and the relationships between capital and the state. This book provides unrivalled insights into the massive hopes engendered by the supposed conquest of the air, and the ways in which these were so swiftly squandered. Aeronautical societies attempted to spark initiatives through 'juvenile' lectures. The initial pioneering efforts were in the form of trans-Atlantic flights by ex-RAF pilots, the journey of Smith brothers to Australia, and flights across Africa. The book discusses the efforts towards organising the civil aviation and propagation to serve the cause of air communication, and the reconnaissance mission of Alan Cobham and Sefton Brancker to negotiate over-flying and landing facilities. Empire route development took place in stages, starting with the Middle East before venturing to India and Africa. However, organised Empire aviation was alive only in the form of occasional news items and speeches. The book examines the stresses of establishing Britain's eastern airway, and the regularisation of air services to Africa. Criticisms on Imperial Airways due to its small fleet and the size subsidy, and the airline's airmail service are also dealt with. As part of reconfiguration, the airlines had to focus more on airmail, which also saw a curtailment of its independence. Imperial Airways was finally nationalised in 1938 as British Overseas Airways Corporation.

The Welsh experience of church polity, 1640–60
Stephen K. Roberts

trace the contemporary state-sponsored 60 ‘One of the least things in religion’ drive to illuminate ‘the dark corners of the land’. The classic work on this is Christopher Hill’s essay which includes that phrase in its title.4 Seen thus, the pinnacle of achievement was the so-called ‘act for the propagation of the gospel’ of February 1650. Hill described the committees formed in north and south Wales to eject ministers, to pool tithes to fund itinerant ministers and to appoint schoolmasters as ‘the culmination of two or three generations of Puritan effort’.5 That

in Church polity and politics in the British Atlantic world, c. 1635–66
Towards epistemological infinitude?
Peter Triantafillou

testify to a much more optimistic view of the abilities of scientific knowledge to inform ‘good’ policymaking. The chapter first traces the critique of excessive planning and the propagation of minor experimental interventions through the works of Karl Popper (Popper, 1966) and Donald T. Campbell (Campbell, 1969) in the 1950s and 1960s. It shows that, while they both rejected centralised planning based on some grand omnipotent science of society, both insisted on the democratic and societal benefits of scientific knowledge. However, the latter was to be generated by

in Neoliberal power and public management reforms
Julie Thorpe

monarchy’s collapse in 1918. This chapter presents a survey of the contested and shifting nature of pan-Germanism from 1848 to 1938 in order to establish one of the book’s central arguments that Austrofascism was directly linked to the preservation and propagation of a pan-German identity in Austria. Contrary to most interpretations of the Austrofascist state, that its leaders and its ideology lacked popular support, I argue that the state’s construction of a pan-German identity drew on widespread support in Austria. Pan-Germanism might better be understood as an

in Pan-Germanism and the Austrofascist state, 1933–38
Abstract only
P. J. McLoughlin

’s commitment to the Irish dimension, and was the first SDLP document to intimate the need to work on an inter-governmental level – even if this meant advancing without unionist support in the short term. In addition, Hume’s importance in the redirection of the SDLP was evident in the leading role he played in promoting the party’s Anglo-Irish strategy among a wider audience.50 But as well as his role in the conception and propagation of the Anglo-Irish strategy, Hume would also guide the SDLP towards its realisation. Hume takes the helm As suggested, the SDLP’s movement

in John Hume and the revision of Irish nationalism
Joseph Hardwick

Associations in Aid of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel (London: R. Clay, 1846 ), p. 5. 23 Stanley, ‘ Home support ’, p. 180; Pascoe, Classified Digest , p. 831 for the figures. 24 RHL, X-289, Stow District Committee Minutes, Entry

in An Anglican British World